William H. Lambert, Mutual Life Bldg , Phila., Pa
Anderson, President's Ball. Phila., 1863.
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Surratt. Boston, 1892.
Abbott, Life of Lincoln. N. Y., 1864.
Abram, a military poem. Richmond, 1863.
Hell, The Day and the War. San Francisco, 1864.
Iteveridge, Assassination of Lincoln. Troy, 1865.
linker. Re-eligibility of President Lincoln.
Ilionardi. Abramo Lincoln. 1862.
I'.irch, The Devil's Visit to Old Abe.
. Confession de John Wilkes Booth. Paris, '65.
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Brooks, Lincoln and the Downfall of Slavery. N.
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Buntline, The Parricides. N. Y., 1865.
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Simonton, Discourse. Rio de Janeiro, 1865.
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Book N. Y., 1864.
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Statue. Springfield, 1874.
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(First Edition, fine copy) ' $1.50
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
the Class of 1901
HARLAN HOYT HORNER
HENRIETTA CALHOUN HORNER
THE EARLIEST PORTRAIT OP ABRAHAM LINCOLN. HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED.
From a carbon enlargement, by Sherman and McHugh, New York, of a daguerreotype in the possession
of the Hon. Robert T. Lincoln, and first published in the McCLURE's Life of Lincoln. It is generally
believed that Lincoln was not over thirty-five years old when this daguerreotype was taken, and it is certainly
true that it shows the face of Lincoln as a young man. It is probably earlier by six or seven years, at least,
than any other existing portrait of Lincoln.
THE EARLY LIFE
CONTAINING MANY UNPUBLISHED DOCUMENTS
AND UNPUBLISHED KEMINISCENCES
OF LINCOLN'S EARLY FRIENDS
IDA M. TARBELL
J. McCAN DAVIS
WITH 160 ILLUSTRATIONS, INCLUDING
20 PORTRAITS OF LINCOLN
S. S. McCLURE, LIMITED
[Att rights reserved]
COPYRIGHT, 1895, BY
S. S. McCLURE, LIMITED
COPYRIGHT, 1896, BY
S. S. McCLURE, LIMITED
Press of .1. J. Kittle & Co.
Actor Place, New York
IT has been only within the last ten years that the descent of
Abraham Lincoln from the Lincolns of Hingham, Massachusetts,
has been established with any degree of certainty. The satis-
factory proof of his lineage is a matter of great importance. In
a way it explains Lincoln. It shows that he came of a family
endowed with the spirit of adventure, of daring, of patriotism, and
of thrift ; that his ancestors were men who for nearly two hun-
dred years before he was born were active and well-to-do
citizens of Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, or Virginia,
men who everywhere played their parts well. Abraham Lincoln
was but the flowering of generations of upright, honorable men.
The first we learn of the Lincolns in this country is between
the years 1635 and 1645, when there came to the town of Hingham,
Massachusetts, from the west of England, eight men of that
name. Three of these, Samuel, Daniel, and Thomas, were brothers.
Their relationship, if any, to the other Lincolns who came over
from the same part of the country at about the same time is not
clear. Two of these men, Daniel and Thomas, died without heirs ;
but Samuel left a large family, including four sons. Among
the descendants of Samuel Lincoln's sons were many good
citizens and prominent public officers. One was a member of the
Boston Tea Party, and served as a captain of artillery in the
War of the Revolution. Others were privates in that war. Three
served on the brig "Hazard" during the Revolution. Levi
Lincoln, a great-great-grandson of Samuel, born in Hingham in
1749, and graduated from Harvard, was one of the minute-men
at Cambridge immediately after the battle of Lexington, a dele-
gate to the convention in Cambridge for framing a State Con-
stitution, and in 1781 was elected to the Continental Congress,
but declined to serve. He was a member of the House of Repre-
sentatives and of the Senate of Massachusetts, and was appointed
Attorney- General of the United States by Jefferson ; for a few
months preceding the arrival of Madison he was Secretary of
State, and in 1807 he was elected Lieutenant-Governor of Massa-
chusetts. In 1811 he was appointed Associate Justice of the
United States Supreme Court by President Madison, an office
which he declined. From the close of the Revolutionary War he
was considered the head of the Massachusetts bar.
His eldest son, Levi Lincoln, born in 1782, had also an honor-
able public career. He was a Harvard graduate, became Governor
of the State of Massachusetts, and held other important public
offices. He received the degree of LL.D. in 1824 from Williams
College, and from Harvard in 1826.
Another son of Levi Lincoln, Enoch Lincoln, served in Con-
gress from 1818 to 1826. He became Governor of Maine in 1827,
holding the position until his death in 1829. Enoch Lincoln was
a writer of more than ordinary ability.
The fourth son of Samuel Lincoln was called Mordecai (Presi-
dent Lincoln descended from him, being his great-great-great-
grandson). Mordecai Lincoln was a rich "blacksmith," as an
iron-worker was called in those days, and the proprietor of
numerous iron-works,* saw-mills, and grist-mills, which with a
goodly amount of money he distributed at his death among his
children and grandchildren. Two of his children, Mordecai and
Abraham, did not remain in Massachusetts, but removed to New
Jersey, and thence to Pennsylvania, where both became rich, and
dying, left fine estates to their children. Their descendants in
Pennsylvania have continued to this day to be well-to-do people,
some of them having taken prominent positions in public affairs.
Abraham Lincoln, of Berks County, who was born in 1736 and
died in 1806, filled many public offices, being a member of the
General Assembly of Pennsylvania, of the State Convention of
1787, and of the State Constitutional Convention in 1790.
One of the sons of this second Mordecai, John (the great-
grandfather of President Lincoln), received from his father
4 ' three hundred acres of land, lying in the Jerseys." But evi-
dently he did not care to cultivate his inheritance, for about
1758 he removed to Virginia. " Virginia" John, as this member
of the family was called, had five sons, all of whom he estab-
lished well. One of these sons, Jacob, entered the Revolution-
ary Army and served as a lieutenant at Yorktown.
The settlers of western Virginia were all in those days more
or less under the fascination of the adventurous spirit which was
opening up the West, and three of "Virginia" John's sons de-
cided to try their fortunes in the new country. One went to
Tennessee, two to Kentucky. The first to go to Kentucky was
Abraham (the grandfather of the President). He was already a
well-to-do man when he decided to leave Virginia, for he sold
his estate for some seventeen thousand dollars. A portion of
this money he invested in land-office treasury warrants.
On emigrating to Kentucky he bought one thousand seven
hundred acres of land. But almost at the beginning of his life
in the new country, while still a comparatively young man, he
was slain by the Indians. His estate seems to have been in-
herited by his eldest son, Mordecai, who afterward became
prominent in the State ; was a great Indian fighter, a famous
story-teller, and, according to the traditions of his descendants,
a member of the Kentucky legislature. This last item we have
not, however, been able to verify. We have had the fullest col-
lection of journals of the Kentucky legislature which exists,
that of Dr. R. T. Durrett of Louisville, Kentucky, carefully
searched, but no mention has been found in them of Mordecai
It is with the brother of Mordecai, the youngest son of the
pioneer Abraham, we have to do, a boy who was left an orphan
at ten years of age, and who in that rude time had to depend
upon his own exertions. We find from newly discovered docu-
ments that he was the owner of a farm at twenty-five years of
age, and from the contemporary evidence that he was a very
good carpenter ; from a document we have discovered in
Kentucky we learn that he was even appointed a road surveyor,
in 1816. We have found his Bible, a very expensive book at
that time ; we have also found that he had credit, and was able
to purchase on credit a pair of suspenders costing one dollar and
fifty cents, and we have learned from the recollections of
Christopher Columbus Graham that in marrying the niece of his
employer he secured a very good wife. The second child of
Thomas Lincoln was Abraham Lincoln, who became the sixteenth
President of the United States and the foremost man of his age.
The career of Abraham Lincoln is more easily understood in
view of his ancestry. The story of his life, which is here told
more fully and consecutively, and in many points, both minor
and important, we believe more exactly than ever before, bears
out our belief that Abraham Lincoln inherited from his ancestry
traits and qualities of mind which made him a remarkable child
and a young man of unusual promise and power. So far from
his later career being unaccounted for in his origin and early
history, it is as fully accounted for as in the case of any man.
So far as possible, the statements in this work are based on
original documents. This explains why in several cases the
dates differ from those commonly accepted. Thus the year of
the death of the grandfather of Abraham Lincoln is made
1788, instead of 1784, because of the recently discovered inven-
tory of his estate. The impression given of Thomas Lincoln is
different from that of other biographies, because we believe the
new documents we have found and the new contemporary
evidence we have unearthed, justify us in it. We have not
made it a sign of shif tlessness that Thomas Lincoln dwelt in a
log cabin at a date when there was scarcely anything else in the
An effort has been made, too, to give what we believe to be a
truer color to the fourteen years the Lincolns spent in southern
Indiana. The poverty and the wretchedness of their life has
been insisted upon until it is popularly supposed that Abraham
Lincoln came from a home similar to those of the "poor white
trash" of the South. There is no attempt made here to deny
the poverty of the Lincoln household, but it is insisted that this
poverty was a temporary condition incident to pioneer life and
the unfortunate death of Thomas Lincoln's father when he was
but a boy. Thomas Lincoln's restless efforts to better his con-
dition by leaving Kentucky for Indiana in 1816, and afterwards,
when he had discovered that his farm in Spencer County was
barren, by trying his fortunes in Illinois, are sufficient proof
that he had none of the indolent acceptance of fate which char-
acterizes the "poor whites."
In telling the story of the six years of Lincoln's life in New
Salem, we have attempted to give a consecutive narrative and to
show the exact sequence of events, which has never been done
before. We have shown, what seems to us very suggestive, the
persistency and courage with which he seized every opportunity
and carried on simultaneously his business as storekeeper and
postmaster and surveyor and at the same time studied law. To
establish the order of events in this New Salem period, the
records of the county have been carefully examined, and many
new documents concerning Lincoln have been found in this
search, including his first vote, his first official document (an
election return), and several new surveying plats. The latter
show Lincoln to have been much more active as a surveyor than
has commonly been supposed. We have also brought to light
the grammar Lincoln studied, with a sentence written on the title
page in Lincoln's own hand.
For the first time, too, we publish documents signed by Lin-
coln as a postmaster. These two letters are also earlier than any
other published letters of Lincoln. Many minor errors have been
corrected, such as the real number of votes which he received on
his first election to the legislature, and the times and places of
his mustering out and into service in the Black Hawk War.
The number of illustrations in the work is many times greater
than ever has before appeared in connection with the early life
of Lincoln. The scenes of his life in Kentucky, Indiana, and
Illinois have been photographed especially for us, and we have
collected from various sources numbers of pictures illustrating
the primitive surroundings of his boyhood and young manhood,
together with portraits of many of his companions in those days.
Our object in giving such a profusion of homely scenes and
faces has been to make a history of Lincoln's early life in pict-
ures. We believe that one examining these prints independ-
ently of the text would have a good idea of Lincoln's condition
from 1809 to 1836.
By far the most important of the illustrations of the work is
the collection of portraits. This is the first systematic effort to
make a complete collection of portraits of the great President.
Our success so far encourages us in believing that before we end
our work on Lincoln we shall have such a collection. Already
we have some seventy-five different portraits. Of these, the
great majority are photographs, ambrotypes, and daguerreo-
types. It was Mr. Lincoln's custom, after the introduction of
photography into Illinois, to sit for his picture whenever he
visited a town to make a speech. This picture he usually gave
to his host; the result was that there now remain, scattered
among his old friends, a large number of interesting portraits,
of which nobody but the owners knew until we undertook this
work. Thus of the twenty portraits which appear in this vol-
ume, twelve have never before been published anywhere, so far
as we know.
It has been through the generosity and courtesy of collectors
and of our correspondents and readers that it has been possible
for us to gather so great a number of portraits and documents.
On all sides collections have been put freely at our service, and
numbers of our readers have sent us unpublished ambrotypes,
daguerreotypes, and photographs, glad, as they have written us,
to aid in completing a Lincoln portrait gallery. It is not pos-
sible to mention here the names of all those to whom we are
indebted, not only for portraits but for documents and manu-
scripts, but credit is given in inserting the material furnished.
Our effort has been to give in both text and notes as exact
and full statements as the information we have been able to
gather permitted us to do. If any reader of this volume dis-
covers errors we shall be glad to receive corrections.
Origin of the Lincoln Family. Possessions of Lincoln's Grandfather.
Lincoln's Story-telling Uncle. Account of Lincoln's Father, Thomas
Lincoln. Marriage of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks. Character
of Nancy Hanks. Thomas Lincoln's Manner of Life and Standing
among his Neighbors 21
The Birth of Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln's Childhood Home. Reminis-
cences of Austin Gollaher, a Boyhood Comrade of Lincoln's. Saves
Lincoln's Life. Lincoln's Early School-teachers. Lincoln's Fondness
for Study 43
The Lincolns leave Kentucky. Hewing a Way through the Forests of
Indiana. A Cabin erected near Gentryville, Spencer County, Indiana.
Description of Lincoln's New Home. Domestic Economy of the
Lincoln Household. Pioneer Fare and Apparel. Death of Lincoln's
Mother. Lincoln's Strength and Skill as a Laborer. Lincoln earns a
Dollar as a Ferryman 51
Lincoln's Struggle for an Education. The Books he Read. Lincoln as
the Oracle of Jones's Store. Slavery in Indiana. Lincoln Develops
into an Orator and Writer. Life on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers
and its Effect on Lincoln 69
Lincoln's Literary Fame among his Neighbors. The Champion of the
Spelling-bee. His Retort to a Boasting Jockey. His Affection for his
Amusements of Lincoln's Life in Indiana. Lincoln as a Sportsman.
Lincoln's Earliest Romance. Early Bereavements .... 88
The Lincolns leave Indiana. Parting from Old Friends in Indiana. The
Journey to Illinois. Lincoln as a Peddler. Begins Life on his own
Account. Splitting Rails for a Pair of Trousers. Lincoln's Great
Strength and his Pride in it. Lincoln and the Professional Athlete . 94
Lincoln's First Work on his own Account. Lincoln's Popularity in San-
gamon County. Rescues Three Comrades from Drowning. Ingenuity
in getting a Flatboat over a Dam. A Visit to New Orleans. New
Orleans in 1831, and Lincoln's Experiences there ; 103
Lincoln settles in New Salem. He becomes a Grocery Clerk. The Fron-
tier Store. Lincoln defeats the Champion Wrestler of Clary's Grove.
His Popularity in New Salem. His Chivalry and Honesty. Mas-
ters Kirkham's Grammar and enters Politics . 115
Lincoln's First Announcement to the Voters of Sangamon County. His
Views on the Improvement of the Sangamon. Views on Usury and
Education. The Modesty of his Circular. Pilots a Steamboat up the
The Black Hawk War. Outbreak of Sacs and Foxes. Lincoln volunteers
and is elected a Captain. The Manner of his Election. An Inexperi-
enced Captain and a Disorderly Company. The Course of the War.
Stilhnan's Defeat. Zachary Taylor's Way of dealing with Insubor-
dination . 134
Expiration of Lincoln's Term and his Reenlistment. Major Iles's Reminis-
cences of the Campaign. The Frantic Terror raised by Black Hawk.
Lincoln and his Company enter Michigan Territory. End of the
War, and Lincoln's Return to New Salem 144
Electioneering in 1832 in Illinois. Lincoln defeated of Election to the As-
sembly. Looking for "Work. Berry and Lincoln buy Three Stores on
Credit. New Salem Merchants in Lincoln's Day. Lincoln reads
Burns and Shakespeare. His Familiarity with Shakespeare . . 155
Lincoln begins to Study Law. His First Law-book. A Chance Copy of
Blackstone. Berry and Lincoln take out a Tavern License and hire
a Clerk . 166
Lincoln appointed Postmaster. Masters Surveying in Six "Weeks, and be-
comes Deputy County Surveyor. Surveying with a Grapevine. His
Work and Earnings as a Surveyor. Early Illinois Towns laid out by
Lincoln . 175
Business Reverses. The Kindness shown Lincoln in New Salem. His
Helpfulness to all about him, Growing Esteem and Influence in
Sangamon County. Becomes a Second Time a Candidate for Member
of the Illinois Assembly. Lincoln on the Stump. Lincoln's Election.
The Vote . 187
Lincoln decides finally on a Legal Career. His Methods of Study. First
Session in the General Assembly. Distrust of Yankees in Early Illi-
nois. Description of the Early Frontier Legislator. Questions before
the Assembly. Internal Improvements. The State Bank . . . 197
Lincoln's Romance with Ann Rutledge. Ann's First Lover, John McNeill,
or McNamar. McNeill's Departure from New Salem. Lincoln's En-
gagement. Ann Rutledge's Death, and Lincoln's Deep Grief . . 208
Abraham Lincoln at Twenty -six Years of Age. A Review of his Career
thus far. His Excellent Preparation for what was to come . .218
I. Memoranda for Lincoln's Genealogy. By the Hon. L. E. Chittenden . 223
II. Christopher Columbus Graham and his Reminiscences of Lincoln's
III. A Leaf from Lincoln's Exercise-Book 236
IV. The Oldroyd Lincoln Collection 237
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
THE EARLIEST PORTRAIT OF LINCOLN Frontispiece
LINCOLN IN 1861. From a photograph owned by A. J. Conant . . 16
LINCOLN IN 1854. From a photograph owned by George Schneider . 18
LINCOLN IN 1863. From a photograph by Brady, Washington . . 20
LAND WARRANT ISSUED TO LINCOLN'S GRANDFATHER . . . .22
NOTES OF SURVEY OF LAND OWNED BY LINCOLN'S GRANDFATHER . . 23
STOCKADE HOME OF LINCOLN'S GRANDFATHER 24
DANIEL BOONE 25
RELICS OF DANIEL BOONE ,26
MEETING-HOUSE ON THE FARM OF LINCOLN'S GRANDFATHER . . .27
JESSE HEAD, WHO MARRIED LINCOLN'S PARENTS 29
MARRIAGE BOND OF THOMAS LINCOLN 30
MARRIAGE CERTIFICATE OF THOMAS LINCOLN AND NANCY HANKS . . 31
MARRIAGE RETURN OF THOMAS LINCOLN AND NANCY HANKS . . .32
LINCOLN IN FEBRUARY, 1860. From a photograph by Brady . . .33
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS GRAHAM IN HIS ONE HUNDREDTH YEAR . . 35
FACSIMILE OF A PASSAGE FROM LINCOLN'S EXERCISE-BOOK . . 36
HOUSE IN WHICH ABRAHAM LINCOLN WAS BORN 37
THOMAS LINCOLN'S BIBLE 38
VIEW OF ROCK SPRING FARM, WHERE PRESIDENT LINCOLN WAS BORN . 39
ROCK SPRING, ON THE FARM WHERE LINCOLN WAS BORN . . .39
LINCOLN IN 1858. From a photograph taken at Beardstown, Illinois . 41
APPOINTMENT OF THOMAS LINCOLN AS ROAD SURVEYOR . . . .42
DEED OF SALE BY THOMAS LINCOLN AND WIFE 43
A KENTUCKY HAND-MILL 44
MAP SHOWING POINTS OF INTEREST IN LINCOLN'S EARLY LIFE . . 45
ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S INDIANA HOME 46
LINCOLN FARM IN INDIANA . . 47
GRAVE OF LINCOLN'S MOTHER 48
LINCOLN IN 1857. From a photograph by Hesler 49
MARRIAGE LICENSE OF THOMAS LINCOLN AND SARAH JOHNSTON . . 51
SARAH BUSH LINCOLN, LINCOLN'S STEP-MOTHER 52
BOND GIVEN BY THOMAS LINCOLN AT MARRIAGE WITH SARAH JOHNSTON 53
BUCKTHORN VALLEY, WHERE LINCOLN WORKED AND HUNTED . . .54
LINCOLN'S "SWIMMING-HOLE," IN LITTLE PIGEON CREEK . . . .55
BRICK-MOULD USED BY LINCOLN'S FATHER . 55
12 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
WELL DUG BY LINCOLN . .56
HICKORY- BARK OX-MUZZLE . . . . . . . . " . .56
THE CRAWFORD HOUSE, WHERE LINCOLN WAS A FARM-HAND . . 57
FACSIMILE OF LINCOLN FAMILY RECORD . 58, 59
DENNIS HANKS 60
MOUTH OF ANDERSON CREEK, WHERE LINCOLN KEPT THE FERRYBOAT . 61
JOSIAH CRAWFORD, FOR WHOM LINCOLN WORKED AS A FARM-HAND . 62
A MISSISSIPPI "BROAD-HORN" . . . . . . . .63
A RIVER PRODUCE BOAT 63
JOSEPH GENTRY, LINCOLN'S COMRADE IN INDIANA . . . . . 64
LINCOLN IN 1858. After an ambrotype owned by James K. Magie . . 65
SAMUEL CRAWFORD 67
ABRAHAM LINCOLN. After a photograph owned by J. C. Browne . . 68
MISSISSIPPI RIVER PRODUCE BOAT ........ 69.
JOHN HANKS 71
JUDGE JOHN PITCHER, A FRIEND OF LINCOLN'S IN INDIANA . . .72
CORN-HUSK COLLAR 73
PUNCHED SHEET-IRON LANTERN 73
JOHN W. LAMAR, WHO KNEW LINCOLN IN INDIANA 74
THE REV. ALLEN BROONER, WHO KNEW LINCOLN IN INDIANA . . .75
LINES FROM LINCOLN'S COPY-BOOK .76
FRAGMENT FROM A LEAF OF LINCOLN'S EXERCISE-BOOK . . . .77
LEAF FROM LINCOLN'S EXERCISE-BOOK 78
WILLIAM JONES, FOR WHOM LINCOLN CLERKED IN INDIANA . . 79
LINCOLN IN 1858. From a photograph owned by Stuart Brown . . 81
GREEN B. TAYLOR, COMRADE OF LINCOLN IN INDIANA . . .83
CABINET MADE BY ABRAHAM LINCOLN .84
PIGEON CREEK CHURCH, WHICH THE LINCOLNS ATTENDED IN INDIANA . 85
THE FIRST LINCOLN MONUMENT 86
FORD WHERE THE LlNCOLNS CROSSED THE WABASH RlVER . . .87
GRAVE OF LINCOLN'S SISTER 88
CORN-HUSK BROOMS AND MOPS 89
A LINCOLN CHAIR 89
PIONEER KITCHEN UTENSILS 90
HlLL FROM WHICH THE LlNCOLNS LAST SAW THEIR INDIANA HOME . 91
LINCOLN'S FIRST HOME IN ILLINOIS . ... . . .92
LINCOLN'S BROAD-AXE .- . . 93
JOHN E. ROLL, WHO HELPED LINCOLN BUILD A FLATBOAT . . . .95
MAP OF SANGAMON TOWN IN 1831 . . . ... . . .96
LINCOLN IN 1859. From a photograph made by Fassett of Chicago . . 97
LINCOLN'S DEVICE FOR LIFTING VESSELS OVER SHOALS . 100
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 13
LINCOLN, OFFUTT, AND GREEN ON THE FLATBOAT AT NEW SALEM . . 103
THOMAS LINCOLN'S HOME IN ILLINOIS 105
A VIEW OP NEW SALEM 107
THE NEW SALEM MILL TWENTY-FIVE YEARS AGO 109
A MATRON OF NEW SALEM IN 1832 110
A NEW SALEM BONNET 110
THE SITE OF NEW SALEM AS IT APPEARS TO-DAY Ill
LINCOLN IN 1857. After an ambrotype by Alschuler, Urbana, Illinois . 113
MAP OF NEW SALEM 116
WILLIAM G. GREENE, AN EARLY FRIEND OF LINCOLN'S AT NEW SALEM . 117
A NEW SALEM SPINNING-WHEEL 118
A NEW SALEM INTERIOR, SHOWING COSTUMES AND FURNITURE . . 119
VIEW FROM THE TOP OF NEW SALEM HlLL 121
MENTOR GRAHAM, THE NEW SALEM SCHOOLMASTER . . . . . 122
A NEW SALEM CHAIR 123
MODEL OF FIRST PLOUGH MADE IN MENARD COUNTY, ILLINOIS . . 123
LINCOLN'S FIRST VOTE. Photographed from the original poll-book . 126
LINCOLN IN 1861 . 130
ABOVE THE DAM AT NEW SALEM 131
THE KIRKHAM'S GRAMMAR USED BY LINCOLN AT NEW SALEM . . . 132
A NEW SALEM CENTRE TABLE 133
A CLARY'S GROVE LOG CABIN t . . . . 134
NANCY GREEN, A FRIEND OF LINCOLN'S AT NEW SALEM . . . .135
JOHN A. CLARY, ONE OF THE "CLARY'S GROVE BOYS" . . . .136
DUTCH OVEN 137
VIEW OF THE SANGAMON EIVER NEAR NEW SALEM 139
SITE OF DENTON OFFUTT'S STORE 140
JOHN POTTER, NEIGHBOR OF LINCOLN'S AT NEW SALEM .... 141
BOWLING GREEN'S HOUSE 143
ABRAHAM LINCOLN. From a photograph owned by T. H. Bartlett, Boston 145
THE BLACK HAWK 149
WHITE CLOUD, THE PROPHET 150
BLACK HAWK 151
WHIRLING THUNDER 151
ZACHARY TAYLOR 152
BLACK HAWK WAR RELICS 153
SCENE OF STILLMAN'S DEFEAT 156
MAJOR ROBERT ANDERSON 157
BAD AXE BATTLE-GROUND 159
LINCOLN IN 1860. From a photograph by Hesler 161
BLACK HAWK WAR MONUMENT AT KELLOGG'S GROVE . 164
14 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
JOHN REYNOLDS, GOVERNOR OF ILLINOIS 1831-1834 . . . . . 165
ELIJAH ILES, LINCOLN'S CAPTAIN IN THE BLACK HAWK WAR . . . 168
A BLACK HAWK WAR DISCHARGE SIGNED BY LINCOLN .... 169
MAP OF ILLINOIS IN 1832 171
ELECTION RETURN WRITTEN BY LINCOLN AS CLERK IN 1832 . . . 173
A STAGE-COACH ADVERTISEMENT, 1834 174
BERRY AND LINCOLN'S STORE IN 1895 176
LINCOLN EARLY IN 1861. From a photograph owned by H. W. Fay . 177
TAVERN LICENSE ISSUED TO BERRY AND LINCOLN 180
THE STATE-HOUSE AT VANDALIA, ILLINOIS 183
DANIEL GREEN BURNER, BERRY AND LINCOLN'S CLERK .... 184
THE REV. JOHN M. CAMERON, A NEW SALEM FRIEND OF LINCOLN'S . 184
JAMES SHORT, A NEW SALEM FRIEND OF LINCOLN'S 184
SQUIRE COLEMAN SMOOT, A NEW SALEM FRIEND OF LINCOLN'S . . 185
SAMUEL HILL, AT WHOSE STORE LINCOLN KEPT THE POST-OFFICE . . 185
MARY ANN RUTLEDGE, MOTHER OF ANN MAYES RUTLEDGE . . . 185
BOOT- JACK MADE AND USED BY LINCOLN WHEN A YOUNG MAN . . 186
LETTER AND RECEIPT WRITTEN BY LINCOLN AS POSTMASTER . . . 187
LETTER WRITTEN BY LINCOLN AS POSTMASTER 189
JOHN CALHOUN, UNDER WHOM LINCOLN LEARNED SURVEYING . . . 190
LINCOLN'S SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS 191
LINCOLN IN THE SUMMER OF 1860. From a photograph by Tuttle . . 193
LINCOLN'S SADDLE-BAGS 195
VIEW OF THE SANGAMON RIVER NEAR NEW SALEM 196
STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS 197
REPORT OF A ROAD SURVEY BY LINCOLN 198
MAP MADE BY LINCOLN OF A ROAD IN MENARD COUNTY, ILLINOIS . . 199
SURVEY OF A SECTION OF LAND BY LINCOLN 202, 203
LINCOLN IN 1861. From a photograph by Hesler, Chicago . . . 205
MAP OF ALBANY, ILLINOIS, MADE BY LINCOLN 207
LINCOLN IN 1858. After an ambrotype by C. Jackson, Pittsfleld, Illinois 209
Two NEW SALEM CHAIRS 211
MAJOR JOHN T. STUART, LINCOLN'S FIRST LAW PARTNER . . .212
ANN RUTLEDGE'S WELL . x 213
LINCOLN IN 1858. From a photograph owned by Mrs. Harriet Chapman 215
FACSIMILE OF AN EARLY LEGAL OPINION BY LINCOLN .... 216
JAMES MCGRADY RUTLEDGE, COUSIN OF ANN RUTLEDGE .... 217
ANN RUTLEDGE'S GRAVE IN CONCORD CEMETERY 219
JOSEPH DUNCAN, GOVERNOR OF ILLINOIS 1834-1838 220
DR. FRANCIS REGNIER, THE NEW SALEM PHYSICIAN 221
ANN RUTLEDGE'S GRAVE IN OAKLAND CEMETERY . 222
ABRAHAM LINCOLN IN 1801. NOW FIRST PUBLISHED.
From a photograph owned by Allen Jasper Conant, to whose courtesy we owe the right to reproduce it here. This photo-
graph was taken in Springfield, early in 1861, by C. 8. German.
LINCOLN IN 1854. HITHERTO ITNPfBLISHEII.
From a photograph owned by Mr. George Schneider of Chicago, Illinois, former editor of the " Staats Zei-
tung," the most influential anti-slavery German newspaper of the West. Mr. Schneider first met Mr. Lincoln ir.
1853, in Springfield. " He was already a man necessary to know," says Mr. Schneider. In 1854 Mr. Lincoln was
in Chicago, and Mr. Isaac N. Arnold, a prominent lawyer and politician of Illinois, invited Mr. Schneider to dine
with Mr. Lincoln. After dinner, as the gentlemen were going down town, they stopped at an itinerant photograph
gallery, and Mr. Lincoln had the above picture taken for Mr. Schneider. The newspaper lie holds in his hands is
the " Press and Tribune."
LINCOLN IN 1863.
From a photograph by Brady, taken In Washington.
THE EARLY LIFE
THE ORIGIN OP THE LINCOLN FAMILY. THE LINCOLNS IN
HE family from which Abraham Lincoln descended
came to America from Norfolk, England, in 1637.
A brief table * will show at a glance the line of
Samuel Lincoln, born in 1620. Emigrated from
Norfolk County, England, to Hingham,
Massachusetts, in 1637. His fourth son was
Mordecai Lincoln, born in 1667. His eldest son
Mordecai Lincoln, born in 1686. Emigrated to New Jersey and
Pennsylvania, 1714. His eldest son was
John Lincoln, born before 1725. In 1758 went to Virginia. His
third son was
Abraham Lincoln, date of birth uncertain. In 1780, or there-
abouts, emigrated to Kentucky. His third sou was
Thomas Lincoln, born in 1778, whose first son was
Sixteenth President of the United States.
For our present purpose it is not necessary to examine the
lives of these ancestors farther back than the grandfather, Abra-
ham Lincoln, who has been supposed to have been born in Vir-
ginia in 1760. A consideration of the few facts we have of his
early life shows clearly that this date is wrong. It is known that
* This table was prepared especially for this work by the Hon. L. E. Chittenden of
New York, Register of the Treasury under Mr. Lincoln. In the Appendix will be found
a full memorandum of Lincoln's genealogy, also prepared by Mr. Chittenden.
'-* i9RS ' ~*r t> * <^r ta^ '-
-^M l l
vev and b.y 0.; i:i o
: rent Money il id into the publtck Treafuir-; ttie Payment \
Jjjffir of to th^.'S-afurcr hath been duly ccrtiiicl bv the .Auditors 1
*P!Bi*VVI ,-' T-.:V.ii/-!- i ,-,--i-M :-<* ^rtA -lifl V /^/^rf i : / -.tr r^r"=-V . -rl int-rt ^l-i- T <-.-.x4 .K
f publict*Accd| rs, and their Certificate recet
N under my Hand, and tl
d Seven Hundred and *<<.
cd into thi Land
e Seal of, the faid
LAND WARRANT ISSUED TO ABRAHAM LINCOLN, GRANDFATHER OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN.
From the original, owned by R. T. Durrett, LL.D., of Louisville, Kentucky. The land records of Kentucky show that
Abraham Lincoln entered two tracts of land when in Kentucky in the spring and summer of 1780. These entries, furnished
us by Dr. Durrett, are as follows :
MAY 29, 1780." Abraham Linkhorn enters four hundred acres of land on Treasury fr arrant, laying on Floyd's Fork,
about two miles above Tice's Fork, beginning at a Sugar Tree S. B., thence east three hundred poles, then north, to include
a small improvement." Land Jtegisler, page 107.
JUNE 7, 1780. ''Abraham Linkhorn enters eight hundred acres upon Treasury Warrant, about six miles below Green
River Lick, including an improvement made by Jacob Gum and Owen Diver." Page 126.
The first tract of land was surveyed May 7, 1785 (see page 23), and the second on October 12, 1784. In 1782 he entered a
third tract of land, a record of which is found in Daniel Boone's field-book. This entry reads : "Abraham Lincoln enters
five hundred acres of land on a Treasury Warrant, No. 5994, beginning opposite Charles Yancey's upper line, on the south
side of the river, running south two hundred poles, then up the river for quantity ; December 11, 1782." This is supposed by
some authorities to be a tract of five hundred acres of land in Campbell County, surveyed and patented in Abraham Lincoln's
name, but after his death. The spelling of the name Linkhorn instead of Lincoln, as it is invariably in other records of the
family, has caused some to doubt that the Treasury warrant above was really issued to the grandfather of the President.
The family traditions, however, all say that the elder Abraham owned a tract on Floyd's Fork. The misspelling and mis-
pronunciation of the name Lincoln is common in Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois. The writer of this note has frequently
heard persons in Illinois speak of " Abe Linkhorn " and " Abe Linkern."
- * >>5
> I .N
v *j V ^
FIELD NOTES Of 90RVEY OF FOUR HUNDRED ACRES OF LAND OWNED BY ABRAHAM LINCOLN, GRANDFATHER OF
From the record of surveys in the surveyor's office of Jefferson County, Kentucky, Book B., page 60.
HUGHES STATION, ON FLOYD !S CREEK, JEFFERSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY, WHERE ABRAHAM LINCOLN,
GRANDFATHER OF THE PRESIDENT, LIVED. NOW FIRST PUBLISHED.
From the original, owned by R. T. Durrett, LL.D., of Louisville, Kentucky. "The first inhabitants of
Kentucky," says Dr. Durrett, " on account of the hostility of the Indians, lived in what were called forts.
They were simple rows of the conventional log cabins of the day, built on four sides of a square or parallelo-
gram, which remained as a court, or open space, between them. This open space served as a playground, a
muster field, a corral for domestic animals, and a store-house for implements. The cabins which formed the
fort's walls were dwelling-houses for the people." At Hughes Station, on Floyd's Creek, lived Abraham
Lincoln and his family. One morning in 1788 the date of the death of Abraham Lincoln is placed in 1784,
1786, and 1788 by different authorities ; the inventory of his estate (page 28) is dated 1788; for this reason
we adopt 1788 the pioneer Lincoln and his three sons, Mordecai, Josiah, and Thomas, were in their clear-
ing, when a shot from an Indian killed the father. The two elder sons ran for help, the youngest remaining
by the dead body. The Indian ran to the side of his victim, and was just seizing the son Thomas, when
Mordecai, who had reached the cabin and secured a rifle, shot through a loophole in the logs and killed
the Indian. It was this tragedy, it is said, that made Mordecai Lincoln one of the most relentless ludian.
haters in Kentucky.
in 1773 Abraham Lincoln's father, John Lincoln, conveyed to his
son a tract of two hundred and ten acres of land in Virginia,
which he hardly would have done if the boy had been but thir-
teen years of age. We know, too, that in 1780 Abraham Lincoln
had a wife and five children, the youngest of whom was at least
RELICS OF DANIEL BOONE.
Photographed for this work from the originals, in the collection of pioneer relics owned by R. T.
Durrett, LL.D., of Louisville, Kentucky. The articles are a rifle, scalping-knife, powder-horn, tomahawk,
and hunting-shirt. Dr. Durrett has all the documents needful to establish the authenticity of each of
these articles. They unquestionably were used by Boone through a long period of hunting and Indian
stalking ; all of the articles are well preserved, and even the leather coat is still fit for service. The rifle,
eays Dr. Durrett, is as true as it ever was. In this same collection are a large number of similar relics of
other Kentucky pioneers.
two years old. Evidently he must have been over twenty years
of age, and have been born before 1760. Probably, too, his-
birthplace was Pennsylvania, whence his father moved into Vir-
ginia about 1758.
Abraham Lincoln was a farmer, and, by 1780, a rich one for
his time. This we know from the fact that in 1780 he sold a
tract of two hundred and forty acres of land for "five thousand
pounds of current money of Virginia;" a sum equal to about
$17.000 at that date. This sale was made, presumably, because
the owner wished to move to Kentucky. He and his family
had for several generations back been friends of the Boones.
The spell the adventurous spirit of Daniel Boone cast over all
his friends, Abraham Lincoln felt ; and in 1780, soon after selling
his Virginia estate, he visited Kentucky, and entered two large
DEATH OF LINCOLN'S GRANDFATHER.
tracts of land. Some months later he moved with his family
from Virginia into Kentucky.
Abraham Lincoln was ambitious to become a landed proprietor
in the new country, and he entered a generous amount of land-
four hundred acres on Long Run, in Jefferson County; eight hun-
dred acres on Green River, near Green River Lick ; five hundred
acres in Campbell County. He settled near the first tract, where
he undertook to clear a farm. It was a dangerous task, for the
Indians were still troublesome, and the settlers, for protection,
were forced to live in or near forts or stations. In 1784, when
John Filson published his "History of Kentucky," though there
was a population of thirty thousand in the territory, there were
but eighteen houses outside of the stations. Of these stations,
or stockades, there were but fifty-two. According to the tradition
in the Lincoln family, Abraham Lincoln lived in one of these
All went well with him and his family until 1788. Then,
one day, while he and his three sons were at work in their
clearing, an unexpected Indian shot killed the father. His
death was a terrible blow to
the family. The large tracts
of land which he had entered
were still wild, and his person-
al property was necessarily
small. The difficulty of reach-
ing the country at that date,
as well as its wild condition,
made it impracticable for even
a wealthy pioneer to own more
stock or household furniture
than was absolutely essential.
Abraham Lincoln was prob-
ably as well provided with per-
sonal property as most of his
neighbors, and much better than many. He had, for a pioneer, an
unusual amount of stock, of farming implements, and of tools ; and
his cabin contained comforts which were rare at that date. The
inventory of his estate, recently found at Bardstown, Kentucky,
and here published for the first time, gives a clearer idea of the
life of the pioneer Lincoln, and of the condition in which his
wife and children were left, than any description could do :
LONG RUN BAPTIST MEETING-HOUSE.
From the original drawing, owned by R. T. Dnr-
rett, LL.D., of Louisville, Kentucky. This meeting-
house was built on the land Abraham Lincoln, grand-
father of the President, was clearing when killed by
Indians. It was erected about 1797.
INVENTORY OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S ESTATE.* NOW FIRST
"At the meeting of the Nelson County Court, October 10, 1788,
present Benjamin Pope, James Rogers, Gabriel Cox, and James
Baird, on the motion of John Coldwell, he was appointed admin-
istrator of the goods and chattels of Abraham Lincoln, and gave
bond in one thousand pounds, with Richard Parker security.
" At the same time John Alvary, Peter Syburt, Christopher
Boston, and William [John (?)] Stuck, or any three of them, were
" March 10, 1789, the appraisers made the following return :
1 Sorrel horse ....
1 Black horse ....
1 Red cow and calf .
1 Brindle cow and calf .
1 Red cow and calf .
1 Brindle bull yearling .
1 Brindle heifer yearling
Bar spear-plough and tackling
3 Weeding hoes
Flax wheel ....
Pair smoothing-irons .
1 Dozen pewter plates
2 Pewter dishes
Dutch oven and cule, weighing 15 pounds
Small iron kettle and cule, weighing 12 pounds
Half -inch auger .
Currying-knife . ...
Currier's knife and barking-iron
Old smooth-bar gun ....
Rifle gun ......
2 Pott trammels .....
1 Feather bed and furniture
Ditto .... . .
1 Bed and turkey feathers and furniture
* We owe this interesting document to the courtesy of R. T. Durrett, LL.D., of
Louisville, Kentucky, a gentleman who for many years has made a specialty of the pio-
neer history of his State, and through whose energetic and intelligent researches most
of the documents concerning the pioneer Abraham Lincoln have been unearthed.
LINCOLN'S STORY-TELLING UNCLE.
Soon after the death of Abraham
Lincoln, his widow moved from Jef-
ferson County to Washington Coun-
ty. The eldest son, Mordecai, who
inherited nearly all of the large
estate, became a well-to-do and
popular citizen. The deed-book of
Washington County still contains a
number of records of lands bought
and sold by him. At one time he
was sheriff of his county, and, again,
its representative in the legislature
of the State. Mordecai Lincoln is
remembered especially for his sport-
ing tastes and his bitter hatred of
the Indians. General U. F. Linder
of Illinois, who, as a boy, lived near
Mordecai Lincoln in Kentucky,
says : "I knew him from my boy-
THE REV. JESSE HEAD.
From an original drawing in the possession
of R. T. Durrett, LL.D., of Louisville, Ken-
tucky. The Rev. Jesse Head was a Methodist
preacher of Washington County, Kentucky,
who married Thomas Lincoln and Nancy
hood, and he WaS naturally a man Hanks. Christopher Columbus Graham, who
of: considerable genius ; he was a
man of great drollery, and it would
almost make you laugh to look at
him. I never saw but one other
man whose quiet, droll laugh ex-
was at the wedding, and who knew Mr. Head
well, says : " Jesse Head, the good Methodist
preacher who married them, was also a car-
penter or cabinet-maker by trade, and, as he
was then a neighbor, they were good friends.
He had a quarrel with the bishops, and was
an itinerant for several years, but an editor
and county judge afterwards in Harrods-
Cited in me the Same disposition tO b " g ', The preacher, Jesse Head, often
tnl u-twi tr me* rm walloimi nnrl nAliri/ta frr T
laugh, and that was Artemus Ward.
He was quite a story-teller. He was
an honest man, as tender-hearted as
a woman, and, to the last degree,
charitable and benevolent.
' ' Lincoln had a very high opinion
of his uncle, and on one occasion
said to me : ' Linder, I have often
said that Uncle Mord had run off with all the talents of
"Old Mord, as we sometimes called him, had been in his
younger days a very stout man, and was quite fond of playing a
game of fisticuffs with any one who was noted as a champion.
His sons and daughters were not talented like the old man, but
were very sensible people, noted for their honesty and kindness
talked to me on religion and politics, for I
always liked the Methodists. I have thought
it might have been as much from his free-
spoken opinions as from Henry Clay's Ameri-
can-African colonization scheme, in 1817, that
I lost a likely negro man, who was leader
of my musicians. . . . But Jesse Head
never encouraged any runaway, nor had any
' underground railroad. 1 He only talked
freely and boldly, and had plenty of true
Southern men with him, such as Clay."
MARRIAGE BOND OF THOMAS LINCOLN.
From a tracing of the original, made by Henry Whitney Cleveland.
of heart." Mordecai remained in Kentucky until late in life,
when he removed to Hancock County, Illinois.
Of Josiah, the second son, we know very little more than that
the records show that he owned and sold land. He left Kentucky
when a young man, to settle on the Blue River, in Harrison
County, Indiana, and there he died. The two daughters married
into well-known Kentucky families : the elder, Mary, marrying
Ralph Grume ; the younger, Nancy, William Brumfield.
THOMAS LINCOLN'S BOYHOOD AND YOUNG MANHOOD.
The death of Abraham Lincoln was saddest for the youngest
of the children, a lad of ten years at the time, named Thomas, for
DESCRIPTION OF LINCOLN'S FATHER. 31
#y <%*-*Jfc6*^L~ t4 o-'t
/ ^/-V^ 7,
MARRIAGE CERTIFICATE OF THOMAS LINCOLN AND NANCY HANKS. HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED.
From the original, in the possession of Henry Whitney Cleveland of Louisville, Kentucky. This
interesting document, discovered by Mr. Cleveland, and published for the first time in this biography,
completes the list of documentary evidence of the marriage of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks. The
bond given by Thomas Lincoln and the returns of Jesse Head, the officiating clergyman, were discovered
some years ago, but the marriage certificate was unknown until recently discovered by Mr. Cleveland.
it turned him adrift to become, a "wandering laboring-boy"
before he had learned even to read. Thomas seems not to have
inherited any of the father's estate, and from the first to have
been obliged to shift for himself. For several years he supported
himself by rough farm work of all kinds, learning, in the mean-
time, the trade of carpenter and cabinet-maker. According to
one of his acquaintances, "Tom had the best set of tools in
what was then and now Washington County," and was "a good
carpenter for those days, when a cabin was built mainly with
the axe, and not a nail or bolt-hinge in it ; only leathers and
pins to the door, and no glass, except in watches and spectacles
and bottles." * Although a skilful craftsman for his day, he
never became a thrifty or ambitious man. "He would work
energetically enough when a job was brought to him, but he
would never seek a job." But if Thomas Lincoln plied his trade
spasmodically, he shared the pioneer's love for land, for when
but twenty-five years old, and still without the responsibility of
a family, he bought a farm in Hardin County, Kentucky. None
of his biographers have ever called attention to this fact, if they
knew it. A search made for this work in the records of Hardin
* Christopher Columbus Graham, as reported by H. W. Cleveland of Louisville, Ky.,
in an interview in 1884, in Mr. Graham's hundredth year, and never before published.
RETURN OF J1ARRIAGE OF THOMAS LINCOLN AND NANCY HANKS.
From a tracing of the original, made by Henry Whitney Cleveland. This certificate was discovered about
1885 by W. P. Booker, Esq., Clerk of Washington County, Kentucky.
LINCOLN IN FEBRUARY, 1860, AT THE TIME OP THE COOPER INSTITUTE SPEECH.
Prom a photograph by Brady. The debate with Douglas in 1858 gave Lincoln a national reputation, and the following year
ic received many invitations to lecture. One came from a young men's Republican club in New York, which was offering a
cries of lectures designed for an audience of men and women of the class apt to neglect ordinary political meetings. Lincoln
wnsented, and in February, 1860 (about three months before his nomination for the Presidency), delivered what is known,
rom the hall in which it was delivered, as the " Cooper Institute speech " a speech which more than confirmed his reputa-
ion. While in New York he was taken by the committee of entertainment to Brady's gallery, and sat for the portrait repro-
luced above. It was a frequent remark with Lincoln that this portrait and the Cooper Institute speech made him President.
From a photograph by Klauber of Louisville, Kentucky. Mr. Graham, born in 1784, lived
until 1885, and was the only man of our generation who could be called a contemporary of
Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks. Long before the documentary evidence of their marriage
was found, Mr. Graham gave his reminiscences of that event. Recent discoveries made in the
public- records of Kentucky regarding the Lincolns, bear out in every particular his recollections.
He is, in fact, the most important witness we have as to the character of the parents of President
Lincoln and their condition in life. The accuracy of his memory and the trustworthiness of his
character are affirmed by the leading citizens of Louisville, Kentucky, of which city he was a
resident. In the Appendix will be found a full statement by Mr. Graham of what he knew of
Thomas Lincoln and his life.
FACSIMILE OP A PASSAGE FROM LINCOLN'S EXERCISE-BOOK.
County first revealed it to us, and we cannot but regard it as of
importance, proving as it does that Thomas Lincoln was not the
shiftless man he has hitherto been pictured. Certainly he must
have been above the grade of the ordinary country boy, to have
had the energy and ambition to learn a trade and secure a farm
through his own efforts by the time he was twenty-five. He
was illiterate, never doing more "in the way of writing than to
bunglingly write his own name." Nevertheless, he had the
reputation in the country of being good-natured and obliging,
and possessing what his neighbors called "good strong horse-
sense." Although he was "a very quiet sort of man," he was
known to be determined in his opinions, and quite competent to
defend his rights by force if they were too flagrantly violated.
He was a moral man, and, in the crude way of the pioneer,
Thomas Lincoln learned his trade as carpenter in Elizabeth-
town, in the shop of one Joseph Hanks. There he met a niece
MARRIAGE OF THOMAS LINCOLN AND NANCY HANKS. 37
HOUSE IN WHICH ABRAHAM LINCOLN WAS BORN. HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED.
Thomas Lincoln moved into this cabin on the Big South Fork of Nolin Creek, three miles from Hod-
gensville, in La Rue County, Kentucky, in 1808 ; and here, on February 12, 1809, Abraham Lincoln was
born. In 1813 the Lincolns removed to Knob Creek. The Nolin Creek farm has been known as the " Creal
Farm " for many years ; recently it was bought by New York people. The cabin was long ago torn
down, but the logs were saved. The new owners, in August, 1895, rebuilt the old cabin on the original
site. This, the first and only picture which has been taken of it, was made for this biography.
of his employer, Nancy Hanks, whom, when he was twenty-
eight years old, he married. Nancy Hanks was, like her hus-
band, a Virginian. Her experience in life had, too, been similar
to her husband's, for the Hanks family had been drawn into
Kentucky by the fascination of Boone, as had the Lincolns. But
it was only in her surroundings and her family that Nancy
Hanks was like Thomas Lincoln. In nature, in education, and
in ambition she was, if tradition is to be believed, quite another
person. Certainly a fair and delicate woman, who could read
and write, who had ideas of refinement, and a desire to get more
from life than fortune had allotted her, was hardly enough like
Thomas Lincoln to be very happy with him. She was still more
unfit to be his wife because of a sensitive nature which made
her brood over her situation a situation made the more hope-
wnxron n, f Dlrfrjttt(T ,
n.MOBAt A . SD THEOlOCICtt
K^ a '
THOMAS LINCOLN'S BIBLB. NOW FIRST PUBLISHED.
From the original, in the collection of O. H. Oldroyd, Washington, D. C. It is not known when or
how Thomas Lincoln obtained this Bible. After his death it passed to his step-children, the Johnstons,
and was sold by them to the " Lincoln Log Cabin Company," to be exhibited at the World's Fair. It was
purchased from this company for the Oldroyd collection. The family record, reproduced on pages 58 and
59, belongs to this Bible. It was taken out and sold to Mr. C. F. Gunther before the Bible was sold
to Mr. Oldroyd.
less by the fact that she had neither the force of character nor
strength of body to do anything to improve it ; if, indeed, she
had any clear notion of what it lacked. Hers was that pitiful
condition where one feels with vague restlessness that life has
something better than one has found, something not seen or
understood, but without which life will never be complete.
Thomas and Nancy Lincoln were married near Beechland, in
Washington County, Kentucky, on June 12, 1806. The wedding
was celebrated in the boisterous style of one hundred years ago,
and was followed by an infare, given by the bride's guardian.
VIEW OF BOCK SPRING FARM, WHEKE PRESIDENT LINCOLN WAS BORN.
Prom a photograph taken in September, 1895, for this biography. The house in which Lincoln
was born is seen to the right, in the background. Rock Spring is in a hollow, under a clump of trees, in
the left centre of the picture.
ROCK SPRING ON THE FARM WHERE LINCOLN WAS BORN.
From a photograph taken in September, 1895, for this biography. The spring is in a hollow at the foot
of the gentle slope on the top of which the house stands.
40 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
To this celebration came all the neighbors, and, according to that
entertaining Kentucky centenarian, Dr. Christopher Columbus
Graham, even those who happened in the neighborhood were
made welcome. He tells how he heard of the wedding while
"out hunting for roots," and went " just to get a good supper."
"I saw Nancy Hanks Lincoln at her wedding," continues Mr.
Graham, "a fresh-looking girl, I should say over twenty. I
was at the infare, too, given by John H. Parrott, her guardian
and only girls with money had guardians appointed by the court.
We had bear-meat ; . . . venison ; wild turkey and ducks ;
eggs, wild and tame, so common that you could buy them at two
bits a bushel ; maple sugar, swung on a string, to bite off for
coffee or whiskey ; syrup in big gourds ; peach-and-honey ; a
sheep that the two families barbecued whole over coals of wood
burned in a pit, and covered with green boughs to keep the
juices in ; and a race for the whiskey bottle."
After his marriage Thomas Lincoln settled in Elizabethtown.
His home was a log cabin, but at that date few people in the
State had anything else. Kentucky had been in the Union only
fourteen years. When admitted, the few brick structures within
its boundaries were easily counted, and there were only log
schoolhouses and churches. Fourteen years had brought great
improvements, but the majority of the population still lived in
log cabins, so that the home of Thomas Lincoln was as good
as those of most of his neighbors. Little is known of his posi-
tion in Elizabethtown, though we have proof that he had credit
in the community, for the descendants of two of the early store-
keepers of the place still remember seeing on their grandfathers'
account books sundry items charged to T. Lincoln. Tools and
groceries were the chief purchases he made, though on one of the
ledgers a pair of " silk suspenders," worth one dollar and fifty
cents, was entered. He not only enjoyed a certain credit with
the merchants of Elizabethtown ; he was sufficiently respected
by the public authorities to be appointed in 1816 a road surveyor,
or, as the office is known in some localities, supervisor. It was
not, to be sure, a position of great importance, but it proves
that he was considered fit to oversee a body of men at a task of
considerable value to the community. Indeed, all of the docu-
ments which we have been able to discover, mentioning Thomas
Lincoln, show him to have had a much better position in Hardin
County than he has been credited with.
LINCOLN IN 1858. HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED.
After a faded ambrotype of Mr. Lincoln, now in the Lincoln Monument col-
lection at Springfield, Illinois. All that is known of it is that it was taken at
Beardstown in 1858. Mr. Lincoln wore a linen coat on the occasion. The pict-
ure is regarded as a good likeness of him as he appeared during the Lincoln
APPOINTMENT OP THOMAS LINCOLN AS ROAD SURVEYOR. HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED.
From a tracing made by Henry Whitney Cleveland. The original of this document is in the records of
Hardin County, at Elizabethtown, Kentucky. It has hitherto been entirely overlooked by the biographers
of Lincoln, and was discovered in the course of a search for documents instituted for this work. The
appointment was made on May 13, 1816, only a few months before the Lincolns moved to Indiana. It
shows that Thomas Lincoln had a standing in the community, which his biographers have always ignored.
The appointment, if modest, would not have been made, we have a right to believe, if Lincoln had been
the " easy-going " and idle fellow he has been asserted to be.
THE BIRTH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. HIS EARLY EDUCATION AND
T was at Elizabethtown that the first child of the
Lincolns was born, a daughter. Soon after this
event Thomas Lincoln decided to combine farm-
ing with his trade, and moved to the farm he had
bought in 1803 on the Big South Fork of Nolin
Creek, in Hardin County, now La Rue County,
three miles from Hodgensville, and about four-
teen miles from Elizabethtown. Here he was
living when, on February 12, 1809, his second
child, a boy, was born. The little new-comer was called Abra-
ham, after his grandfather a name which had persisted through
many preceding generations of the Lincolns.
The home into which the child came was the ordinary one of
the poorer Western pioneer a one-roomed cabin with a huge out-
side chimney, no windows, and only a rude door. The descrip-
tions of its squalor and wretchedness, which are so familiar, have
been overdrawn. Dr. Graham, than whom there is no better
authority on the life of that day, and who knew Thomas Lincoln
well, declares :
" It is all stuff about Tom Lincoln keeping his wife in an open
LINCOLN'S CHILDHOOD HOME.
shed in a winter when the wild
animals left the woods and stood
in the corners next the stick-and-
clay chimneys, so as not to freeze
to death ; or, if climbers, got on
the roof. The Lincolns had a cow
and calf, milk and butter, a good
feather bed, for I have slept in it,
while they took the buffalo-robes
on the floor, because I was a
doctor. They had home-woven
' kiverlids,' big and little pots, a
loom and wheel ; and William
Hardesty, who was there too, can
say with me that Tom Lincoln
was a man, and took care of his
The Lincoln home was un-
doubtedly rude, and in many ways
uncomfortable, but it sheltered a
happy family, and its poverty af-
fected the new child but little.
He was robust and active ; and
life is full of interest to the child
fortunate enough to be born in
the country. He had several com-
panions. There was his sister
Nancy, or Sarah both names are
given her two years his senior ;
there was a cousin of his mother's,
ten years older, Dennis Hanks, an
active and ingenious leader in
sports and mischief ; and there
were the neighbors' boys. One of
the latter, Austin Gollaher, still
tells with pleasure of how he
DEED OP SALE SIGNED BY THOMAS LINCOLN AND WIFE. HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED.
The Book of Deeds in Hardin County, Kentucky, shows that in 1803, three years before his marriage,
Thomas Lincoln bought a farm in Hardin County. The same records contain a deed of the sale in 1814 of
this same farm, it is supposed, signed by Thomas Lincoln. The deed is evidently written and signed by one
person. Nancy Lincoln affixes her mark. This is not proof that she could not write ; it not infrequently
happens that people in remote country districts make a mark rather than labor with a pen, to which they
are unaccustomed. All accounts of Nancy Lincoln agree that she was well educated for her day.
played with young Lin-
coln in the shavings of
his father's carpenter
shop, of how he hunted
coons and ran the woods
with him, and once even
saved his life.
"Yes," said Mr. Gol-
laher, " the story that I
once saved Abraham Lin-
coln' s life is true, but it
is not correct as gen-
and I had been going to
school together for a
year or more, and had
become greatly attached
to each other. Then
school disbanded on ac-
count of there being so
few scholars, and we did
not see each other much
for a long while. One
Sunday my mother
visited the Lincolns, and
I was taken along. Abe
and I played around all
day. Finally, we con-
cluded to cross the creek to hunt for some partridges young
Lincoln had seen the day before. The creek was swollen by a
recent rain, and, in crossing on the narrow footlog, Abe fell in.
Neither of us could swim. I got a long pole and held it out
to Abe, who grabbed it. Then I pulled him ashore. He was
almost dead, and I was badly scared. I rolled and pounded
him in good earnest. Then I got him by the arms and shook
him, the water meanwhile pouring out of his mouth. By this
means I succeeded in bringing him to, and he was soon all right.
"Then a new difficulty confronted us. If our mothers dis-
covered our wet clothes they would whip us. This we dreaded
from experience, and determined to avoid. It was June, the
A KENTUCKY HAND-MILL.
From a photograph of the original, owned by R. T.
Durrett, 1. 1.. I)., of Louisville, Kentucky. This mill was
formerly the property of Joseph Brooks, a prominent pioneer
of Kentucky. Similar ones were used by all Western pio-
VtStodlj Co, Sostoa
MAP SHOWING POINTS OF INTEREST IN LINCOLN'S EARLY LIFE. MADE SPECIALLY FOR THIS BIOGRAPHY.
The above map shows where Abraham Lincoln's grandfather first took land in Kentucky, where his father and mother
were married, where they first lived, where he was born, and where he lived from 1809 to 1816. Tt shows the Rolling Fork,
Salt River, and the Ohio, which Thomas Lincoln followed in going into Indiana in 1816 ; the new home in Indiana ; the
point where Lincoln kept the ferry about 1826 ; Boonville, where he went to hear trials ; the grave of his mother ; the
route by which it is supposed he went to Illinois in 1830 (see page 87 for note correcting this route); the location of both of
Thomas Lincoln's farms in Illinois, and his grave, near Farmington, Coles County. Sangamon, New Salem, Vandalia, Spring-
field, and the chief places where Mr. Lincoln practised law are shown, as well as the points where the Lincoln and Douglas
debates and the important political events of the campaign of 1860 took place.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S INDIANA HOME.
After an old photograph showing the cabin as it appeared in 1869. Thomas Lincoln built this
house in 1817, and moved into it about a year after he reached his farm. At first it had neither
windows, door, nor floor ; but after the advent of Sally Bush Lincoln it was greatly improved.
When he decided to leave Indiana he was preparing the lumber for a better house.
sun was very warm, and we soon dried our clothing by spread-
ing it on the rocks about us. We promised never to tell the
story, and I never did until after Lincoln's tragic end.
" Abraham Lincoln had a sister. Her name was Sallie, and
she was a very pretty girl. Sallie Lincoln was about my age ;
she was my sweetheart. I loved her and claimed her, as boys
do. I suppose that was one reason for my warm regard for Abe.
When the Lincoln family moved to Indiana, I was prevented
by circumstances from bidding' good-by to either of the children,
and I never saw them again." *
All the young people went to school. At that day the
schools in the West were usually accidental, depending upon
the coming of some poor and ambitious young man who was
willing to teach a few terms while he looked for an opening to
something better. The terms were irregular, their length being
decided by the time the settlers felt able to board the master
and pay his small salary. The chief qualification for a school-
master seems to have been enough strength to keep the "big
boys" in order, though one high authority affirms that pluck
went "for a heap sight more'n sinnoo with boys."
* Unpublished MS. of an interview with Austin Gollaher, by D. J. Thomas.
LINCOLN'S SCHOOL TEACHERS.
LINCOLN FARM IN INDIANA.
From a photograph taken for this biography. Present appearance of the quarter section of govern-
ment land in Spencer County, Indiana, entered by Thomas Lincoln, October 15, 1817, view looking east.
Thomas Lincoln selected this tract in 1816, and, to identify it, he blazed the trees, and piled up brush at
the corners to establish boundary lines. When he returned with his family he was obliged to cut his way
-to the spot chosen for his cabin, and to fell trees to find space for the " half-face camp " in which he first
lived. This land was entered under the old credit system. Later Mr. Lincoln gave up to the United
States the east half, and the amount paid on it was passed to his credit to complete paying for the west
half. The patent issued for the latter tract was dated June 6, 1827.
Many of the itinerant masters were Catholics strolling Irish-
men from the colony in Tennessee, or French priests from Kas-
kaskia. Lincoln's first teacher, Zachariah Riney, was a Catholic.
Of his second teacher, Caleb Hazel, we know even less than of
Riney. Mr. Gollaher says that Abraham Lincoln, in those days
when he was his schoolmate, was "an unusually bright boy at
school, and made splendid progress in his studies. Indeed, he
learned faster than any of his schoolmates. Though so young,
he studied very hard. He would get spice-wood brushes, hack
them up on a log, and burn them two or three together, for the
purpose of giving light by which he might pursue his studies."
Probably the boy's mother had something to do with the
spice-wood illuminations. Tradition has it that Mrs. Lincoln took
great pains to teach her children what she knew, and that at her
knee they heard all the Bible lore, fairy tales, and country legends
that she had been able to gather in her poor life.
Besides the "ABC schools," as Lincoln called them, the
only other medium of education in the country districts of Ken-
tucky in those days was " preaching." Itinerants like the school-
masters, the preachers, of whatever denomination, were generally
uncouth and illiterate ; the code of morals they taught was
mainly a healthy one, and they, no doubt, did much to keep the
consciences of the pioneers awake. It is difficult to believe that
they ever did much for the moral training of young Lincoln,
though he certainly got his first notion of public speaking from
them ; and for years in his boyhood one of his chief delights was
to get his playmates about him, and preach and thump until he
had his auditors frightened or in tears.
GRAVE OF NANCY HANKS LINCOLN.
From a photograph loaned by W. W. Admire. The grave of Abraham Lincoln's mother is on a
wooded knoll about half a mile southeast of the site of her Indiana home. Near her are buried Thomas
and Betsey Sparrow, who followed the Lincolns to Indiana, and who died a few days before Mrs.
Lincoln, and of the same disease ; and also Levi Hall and his wife, who died several years later. There
are two or three other graves in the vicinity. Until 1879 the only mark about the grave of Nancy Lincoln
was the names of visitors to the spot, cut in the bark of the trees which shaded it ; then Mr. P. E.
Studebaker of South Bend, Indiana, erected the etone, and soon after a fence was purchased by a few of
the leading citizens of Rockport, Indiana. The inscription on the stone runs : " Nancy Hanks Lincoln,
Mother of President Lincoln, died October 5, A.D., 1818. Aged thirty-five years. Erected by a friend of
her martyred son."
LINCOLN IN 1857.
From a photograph loaned by H. W. Fay of De Kalb, Illinois. The original was taken
early in 1857 by Alexander Heeler of Chicago. Mr. Fay writes of the picture : " I have a letter
from Mr. Hesler stating that one of the lawyers came in and made arrangements for the sit-
ting, so that the members of the bar could get prints. Lincoln said at the time that he did not
know why the boys wanted such a homely face." Mr. Joseph Medill of Chicago went with
Mr. Lincoln to have the picture taken. He says that the photographer insisted on smoothing
down Lincoln's hair, but Lincoln did not like the result, and ran his fingers through it before
sitting. The original negative was burned in the Chicago fire.
MARRIAGE LICENSE OF THOMAS LINCOLN AND SARAH JOHNSTON. NOW FIUST PUBLISHED.
From a tracing made by Henry Whitney Cleveland.
THE LINCOLNS LEAVE KENTUCKY. THEY SETTLE IN SOUTHERN
INDIANA. CONDITIONS OF LIFE IN THEIR NEW HOME.
N 1816 a great event happened to the little boy.
His father emigrated to Indiana from Knob
Creek (Thomas Lincoln had removed from the
farm on Nolin Creek to one some fifteen miles
northeast, on Knob Creek, when Abraham was
four years old). "This removal was partly on
account of slavery, but chiefly on account of the
difficulty in land titles in Kentucky," says his
son. It was due, as well, no doubt, to the fasci-
nation which an unknown country has always for the adven-
turous, and to that restless pioneer spirit which drives even
ONIVERSnY OF ILUNGfe
SARAH BUSH LINCOLN.
Prom a photograph in the possession of her granddaughter, Mrs. Harriet Chapman of Charleston,
Illinois. Sarah Bush was born in Kentucky, December 13, 1788. She was a friend of Thomas Lincoln
and Nancy Hanks, and it is said that Thomas Lincoln had been her suitor before she married Daniel
Johnston. Her husband died in October, 1818. In November, 1819, Thomas Lincoln went to Kentucky
to seek her a second time in marriage. An incident of the courtship is told by Mr. J. L. Nail, a cousin
of President Lincoln : " Uncle Thomas came back to Kentucky after the death of his first wife, Nancy
Hanks, and proposed marriage to the widow Johnston ; she told him that she would be perfectly willing
to marry him, as she had known him a long time, and felt that the marriage would be congenial and
happy ; but it would be impossible for her even to think of marrying, and leaving the State, as she was
considerably in debt. Uncle Thomas told her that need make no difference, as he had plenty of money,
and would take care of her financial affairs ; and when he had ascertained the amount of her indebtedness
and the names of the 'parties to whom the money was due, he went around and redeemed all her paper
and presented it to her, and told her, when she showed so much honor about debts, he was more fully
satisfied than ever that she would make him a good wife. She said, as he had displayed so much
generosity in her behalf, she was willing then to marry and go with him to Spencer County, Indiana."
Sarah Bush Lincoln changed the character of the Lincoln home completely when she entered it, and there
is no question of the importance of her influence upon the development of her step-son Abraham. She
was a woman of great natural dignity and kindliness, and highly esteemed by all who knew her. She died
on the 10th of December, 1869, at the old homestead in Coles County, Illinois.
HEWING A WAY THROUGH THE FORESTS OF INDIANA. 53
THE MARRIAGE BOND fJIVEN BY THOMAS LINCOLN AT HIS MAKKIAGE WITH SARAH JOHNSTON. NOW
From a tracing made by Henry Whitney Cleveland.
men of sober judgment continually towards the frontier, in
search of a place where the conflict with nature is less severe
some spot farther on, to which a friend or a neighbor has pre-
ceded, and from which he sends back glowing reports. It may
be that Thomas Lincoln was tempted into Indiana by the
reports of his brother Josiah, who had settled on the Big Blue
River in that State. At all events, in the fall of 1816 he started
with wife and children and household stores to journey by horse-
back and by wagon from Knob Creek to a farm selected on a
previous trip he had made. This farm, located near Little
Pigeon Creek, about fifteen miles north of the Ohio River, and
a mile and a half east of Gentry ville, Spencer County, was in a
forest so dense that the road for the travellers had to be hewed
out as they went.
INCOLN WOUKED AND HUNTED.
After a photograph made for this biography. In this valley are located nearly all the farms on which
Lincoln worked in his boyhood, including the famous Crawford place, where he and his sister Sarah were
both employed as " help." Visitors to the locality have pointed out to them numberless items associated
with his early life fields he helped to clear and till, fences he built, houses he repaired, wells he dug, paths
he walked, playgrounds he frequented. Indeed, the inhabitants of Buckthorn Valley take the greatest
pride in Lincoln's connection with it.
To a boy of seven years, free from all responsibility, and too
vigorous to feel its hardships, such a journey must have been,
as William Cooper Ho wells, the father of the novelist, says of
his own trip from Virginia to Ohio, in 1813, "a panorama of
delightful novelty.-' Life suddenly ceased its routine, and
every day brought forth new scenes and adventures. Little
Abraham saw forests greater than he had ever dreamed of,
peopled by strange birds and beasts, and he crossed a river so
wide that it must have seemed to him like the sea. To Thomas
and Nancy Lincoln the journey was probably a hard and sad one ;
but to the children beside them it was a wonderful voyage into
A NEW HOME IN INDIANA.
On arriving at the new farm an axe was put into the boy's
hands, and he was set to work to aid in clearing a field for corn,
DESCRIPTION OF LINCOLN'S HOME IN INDIANA. 55
THE OLD SWIMMING-HOLE.
A secluded part of Little Pigeon Creek, not far from Gentryville, where Lincoln,
Dennis Hanks, John Johnston, the Gentry boys, and others of the neighborhood used to
bathe. It is still pointed out as " the place where Abe went in swimming."
and to help build the " half- face camp " which for a year was
the home of the Lincolns. There were few more primitive homes
in the wilderness of Indiana in 1816 than this of young Lincoln's,
and there were few families, even in that day, who were forced
to practise more makeshifts to get a living. The cabin which
took the place of the " half -face camp" had but one room,
with a loft above. For a long time there was no window, door,
or floor ; not even the traditional deer-skin hung before the exit ;
there was no oiled paper over the opening for light ; there was
no puncheon covering on the ground.
The furniture was of their own manufacture. The table and
BRICK-MOULD USED BY THOMAS LINCOLN.
From a photograph loaned by Jesse W. Weik.
WELL DUG BY LINCOLN.
In a. field near the Crawford house is a well which is pointed out to sight-seers
as one which Lincoln helped to dig. Many things about the Crawford place fences,
corn-cribs, house, barn were built in part by Lincoln.
chairs were of the rudest sort rough slabs of wood in which
holes were bored and legs fitted in. Their bedstead, or, rather,
bed-frame, was made of poles held up by two outer posts, and the
ends made firm by inserting the poles in auger-holes that had
been bored in a log which was a part of the wall of the cabin ;
skins were its chief covering. Little Abraham's bed was even
more primitive. He slept on a heap of dry leaves in the corner of
the loft, to which he mounted by
means of pegs driven into the wall.
Their food, if coarse, was usually
abundant; the chief difficulty in
supplying the larder was to secure
any variety. Of game there was
plenty deer, bear, pheasants, wild
turkeys, ducks, birds of all kinds.
There were fish in the streams, and
wild fruits of many kinds in the
woods in the summer, and these
, . -. . " . . ... HICKOKV-BARK OX-MUZZLE.
were dried for winter use ; but the After a drawing made frora the origlnal) in
difficulty Of raising and milling the collection of pioneer articles in the United
rorn and whpflt waq VPTV 0TPat Tn States National Museum, at Washington, D. C.
1 ana Wneat \\aS Very greai. in- Hickory bark was used freely by the Western
deed, in many places in the West Pioneers. From it and from corn husks they
, f, n i -i . , were obliged, in fact, to make most of their
the first flour cake was an historical harness.
DOMESTIC ECONOMY OF LINCOLN'S INDIANA HOME. 57
THE CRAWFORD HOUSE, WHERE LINCOLN WAS A FARM-HAND.
The house of Josiah Crawford, near Gentryville, Indiana. Here Lincoln worked by the day for sev-
eral months, while his sister was a "hired girl " for Mrs. Crawford. In 1829 Lincoln cut down timber
and whip-sawed it into planks for a new house which his father proposed to build ; but Thomas Lincoln
decided to go to Illinois before the new house was begun, and Abraham sold his planks to Mr. Craw-
ford, who worked them into the southeast room of his house, where relic-seekers have since cut them to
pieces to make canes. This picture. is made after a photograph taken before the death of Mr. and Mrs.
Crawford, both of whom are shown here.
event.* Corn dodger was the e very-day bread of the Lincoln
household, the wheat cake being a dainty reserved for Sunday
Potatoes were the only vegetables raised in any quantity, and
there were times in the Lincoln family when they were the only
food on the table ; a fact proved to posterity by the oft-quoted
remark of Abraham to his father after the latter had asked a
*The first flour cake made in Louisville, Kentucky, was made in 1779. The records
of the city thus describe the event : " It is related that, when the first patch of wheat
was raised about this place, after being ground in a rude and laborious hand-mill, it
was sifted through a gauze neckerchief, belonging to the mother of the gallant man
who gave us the information, as the best bolting-cloth to be had. It was then short-
ened, as the housewife phrased it, with raccoon fat, and the whole station invited to
partake of a sumptuous feast upon a flour cake." History of the Ohio Falls Counties,
blessing o v e r a
dish of roasted
they were "migh-
ty poor bless-
ings." Not only
were they all the
Lincolns had for
times ; one of
tells of calling
there when raw
and washed, were
instead of apples
or other fruit.
The food was
prepared in the
rudest way, for
the supply of
and cooking uten-
sils was limited.
The former were
ing entirely, and
as for the latter,
the most import-
ant item was the
Dutch oven. An
ticle in the primi-
tive kitchen out-
fit was the "grit-
ter." It was made
by flattening out
an old piece of
tin, punching it
full of holes, and
By peiroiisl^n, from Herndon and Welk's Lite of Abraham Lincoln."
Copyright !*, by D. Appleton & Co.
Written by Abraham Lincoln
From original in possession of
THE APPAREL OF THE LINCOLN FAMILY.
in his Father's Bible.
<7. ^". Gunther, Esq., Chicago.
nailing it to a
board. Upon this
all sorts of things
were grated, even
ears of corn, in
which slow way
enough meal was
for bread. Old tin
was used for many
other little contriv-
ances besides the
every scrap was
Most of the dishes
were of pewter ; the
spoons, iron ; the
knives and forks,
The Lincolns of
course made their
own soap and can-
dles, and if they
had cotton or wool
to wear they had
literally to grow it.
One of the "old
settlers" of Illinois
says of her experi-
ence in clothing her
" As for our clothes,
we had to raise, pick,
spin, and weave cotton
for winter and sum-
mer. We also made
linsey of wool and flax.
The first indigo we had
we raised. Besides that
we used sumac berries,
white - walnut bark,
and other barks for
' ' Now for cotton
picking. We chil-
dren had to lie before
the fire and pick the
seed from the cotton
bolls before we could
go to bed. The warm-
er the cotton the bet-
ter it picked ; so we
would take a good
sweat. The next day
that had to be carded
and spun ; so some
would soap the cot-
ton, some card, and
some spin ; and when
we would get enough
spun and colored to
make a dress apiece
we would put it in
the loom and weave
it. It did not take
fifteen or t w r e 11 1 y
yards to make a dress
then ; six or eight
yards of linsey were
enough for any wo-
It is probable
that young Abra-
ham Lincoln wore
little cotton or lin-
trousers were of
deer-skin, his foot-covering a home-made moccasin, his cap a coon-
skin ; it was only the material for his shirt or blouse which was
woven at home. . If this costume had some obvious disadvan-
tages, it was not to be despised. So good an authority as Gov-
ernor Reynolds says of one of its articles the linsey-woolsey
shirt "It was an excellent garment. I have never felt so happy
and healthy since I put it off."
These "pretty pinching times," as Abraham Lincoln once
From a photograph in the Libby Prison Museum of Chicago, by per-
mission of Mr. C. F. Gunther. Dennis Hanks, a cousin of Nancy Hanks
Lincoln, was born in Kentucky, in 1799, and was brought up by his uncle
Thomas Sparrow. The year after Thomas Lincoln moved to Indiana,
Thomas Sparrow followed him, but both he and his wife died there in 1818.
Dennis then became an inmate of the Lincoln household. He afterwards
married one of the daughters of Sally Bush Lincoln. It was largely through
his influence that the Lincolns moved into Illinois in 1830. Dennis Hanks
has been one of the most prolific contributors to the early period of Mr.
Lincoln's life, his letters to Mr. Herndon being full of curious and
valuable matter. He died in October, 1892. One of his daughters,
Mrs. Harriet Chapman, is still living at Charleston, Illinois.
DEATH OF LINCOLN'S MOTHER.
MOUTH OF ANDERSON CREEK, WHERE LINCOLN KBIT THE FEURY-BOAT.
From a photograph taken for this biography. This ferry, at the mouth of Anderson Creek, was first
established and owned by James McDaniel, and was afterwards kept by his son-in-law James Taylor.
It was the latter who hired Abraham Lincoln, about 1826, to attend the ferry-boat. As the boat did
not keep him busy all the time, he acted as man-of-all-work around the farm. A son of James Taylor,
Captain Green B. Taylor of South Dakota, is still alive, and remembers distinctly the months Lincoln
spent in his father's employ. Captain Taylor says that Lincoln "slept tip-stairs" with him, and used to
read "till near midnight."
described the early days in Indiana, lasted until 1819. The year
before, Nancy Lincoln had died, and for many months no more
forlorn place could be conceived than this pioneer home bereft of
its guiding spirit ; but finally Thomas Lincoln went back to
Kentucky and returned with a new wife Sally Bush Johnston,
a widow with three children, John, Sarah, and Matilda. The
new mother came well provided with household furniture,
bringing many things unfamiliar to little Abraham "one fine
bureau, one table, one set of chairs, one large clothes-chest,
cooking utensils, knives, forks, bedding, and other articles."
She was a woman of energy, thrift, and gentleness, and at once
made the cabin home-like, and taught the children habits of
cleanliness and comfort.
Among those whom Lincoln served in Indiana as " hired
boy " was Josiah Crawford, a well-to-do farmer living near
Gentry ville. Mr. Crawford owned a copy of Weems's "Life
of Washington," a precious book in those days, and Lincoln
borrowed it to read. " Late in the night, before going to rest,
he placed the borrowed book in his only bookcase, the open-
ing between two logs of the walls of the cabin, and retired to
dream of its contents. During the night it rained ; the water
dripping over the ' mud-daubing ' on to the book stained the
leaves and warped the binding. Abe valued the book in pro-
portion to the interest he had in the hero, and felt that the
owner must value it beyond his ability to pay. It was with
the greatest trepidation he took the book home and told the
story, and asked how he might hope to make restitution. Mr.
Crawford answered : ' Being as it is you, Abe, I won't be hard
on you. Come over and shuck corn three days, and the book
is yours.' Shuck corn three days and receive a hero's life!
He felt that the owner was giving him a magnificent present.
After reading the book he used to tell the Crawfords : ' I do
not always intend to delve, grub, shuck corn, split rails, and the
like.' His whole mind was devoted to books, and he declared
he ' was going to fit himself for a profession.' These declara-
tions were often made to Mrs. Crawford, who took almost a
mother's interest in him, and' she would ask: 'What do you
want to be now ?' His answer was invariably : " I'll be Presi-
dent.' As he was generally playing a joke on some one, she
would answer : ' You'd make a purty President with all your
tricks and jokes. Now, wouldn't you ? ' He would then declare :
' Oh, I'll study and get ready, and then the chance will come. 1 "*
* Unpublished MS. by A. Hoosier.
ABRAHAM BECOMES A
Abraham was ten
years old when his new
mother came from Ken-
tucky, and he was al-
ready an important
member of the family.
He was remarkably
strong for his years, and
the work he could do in
a day was a decided ad-
vantage to Thomas Lin-
coln. The axe which had
been put into his hand to
help in making the first
clearing, he had never
been allowed to drop ;
indeed, as he says him-
self, " from that till with-
in his twenty-third year
he was almost constantly
handling that most use-
ful instrument. ' ' Be-
sides, he drove the team,
cut the elm and linn
brush with which the
stock was often fed,
learned to handle the old
shovel-plough, to wield
the sickle, to thresh the
wheat with a flail, to fan
and clean it with a sheet,
to go to mill and turn the
hard-earned grist into
flour. In short, he
learned all the trades the
settler' s boy must know,
and so well that when his
father did not need him
LINCOLN'S STRENGTH AND SKILL AS A LABORER.
A MISSISSIPPI " BROAD-HORN."
From a model in the exhibit of the United States National Museum at the Atlanta Exposition of 1895.
The flatboat which Abraham Lincoln piloted to New Orleans was not, probably, as well built a boat as the
above model represents; but it was built on the game general plan. The hold was enclosed to protect the
produce, and on the deck was a cabin in which the boatmen lived. In going down the river, rough sails
were sometimes rigged up on these broad-horns, though they floated usually, directed by huge paddles.
If the boat was brought back, it was warped and poled by hand up the river. More often, however, the
boatmen sold both boat and cargo at New Orleans, and came back by the steamers as deck passengers.
Boats like the two models on this page are still seen in great numbers on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
he could hire him to the neighbors. Thomas Lincoln also taught
him the rudiments of carpentry and cabinet-making, and kept
him busy much of the time as his assistant in his trade. There
are houses still standing, in and near Gfentryville, on which it is
said he worked. The families of Lamar, Jones, Crawford, Gentry,
Turnham, and Richardson, all claim the honor of having em-
ployed him upon their cabins.
As he grew older he became one of the strongest and most
popular "hands" in the vicinity, and much of his time was
spent as a " hired boy" on some neighbor's farm. For twenty-
five cents a day paid to his father he was hostler, ploughman,
wood-chopper, and carpenter, besides helping the women with
the " chores." For them he was ready to carry water, make the
fire, even tend the baby. No wonder that a laborer who never
refused to do anything asked of him, who could " strike with a
mall heavier blows " and "sink an axe deeper into the wood"
than anybody else in the community, and who at the same time
A RIVTEH PRODUCE BOAT.
From a model in the exhibit of the United States National Museum at, the Atlanta Exposition of 1895.
The photograph of this model, and of the one above, we owe to the courtesy of the director of the Museum,
Mr. O. Brown Goode.
was general help for the women,
never lacked a job in Gentry ville.
Of all the tasks his rude life
brought him, none seems to have
suited him better than going to
the mill. It was, perhaps, as
much the leisure enforced by this
trip as anything else that at-
tracted him. The machinery was
primitive, and each man waited
his turn, which sometimes was
long in coming. A story is told
by one of the pioneers of Illinois
of going many miles with a grist,
and waiting so long for his turn
that, when it came, he and his
horse had eaten all the corn, and
he had none to grind. This wait-
ing with other men and boys on
like errands gave an opportunity
for talk, story-telling, and games,
which were Lincoln's delight.
In 1826 he spent several months as a ferryman at the mouth
of Anderson Creek, where it joins the Ohio. This experience sug-
gested new possibilities to him. It was a custom among the
farmers of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois at this date to collect a
quantity of produce, and float down to New Orleans on a raft,
to sell it. Young Lincoln saw this, and wanted to try his for-
tune as a produce merchant. An incident of his projected trip
he related once to Mr. Seward :
" Seward," he said, " did you ever hear how I earned my first dollar ? "
"No," said Mr. Seward.
"Well," replied he, "I was about eighteen years of age, and belonged, as
you know, to what they call down South the ' scrubs; ' people who do not own
land and slaves are nobody there ; but we had succeeded in raising, chiefly by
my labor, sufficient produce, as I thought, to justify me in taking it down the
river to sell. After much persuasion I had got the consent of my mother to
go, and had constructed a flatboat large enough to take the few barrels of things
we had gathered to New Orleans. A steamer was going down the river. We
have, you know, no wharves on the Western streams, and the custom was, if
passengers were at any of the landings, they were to go out in a boat, the
steamer stopping, and taking them on board. I was contemplating my new
One of the few companions of Lincoln's youth in
Indiana, now living, is Joseph Gentry. He resides
on a farm one-fourth mile west from the Lincoln
farm, where he has lived about sixty years.
When a boy he lived in Gentryville a town
founded by the Gentrys. He was present at the
funeral of Nancy Hanks Lincoln, and remembers
hearing the minister say it was through the
efforts of the little son of the dead woman that
his services had been secured.
Carbon enlargement, made by Sherman & McHngb of New York City.
LINCOLN IN 1858.
From a photograph loaned by W. J. Franklin of Macomb, Illinois, and taken in 1866 from an
ambrotype made in 1858 in Macomb. This portrait figures in the collection in the Lincoln Home at
Springfield, Illinois, and on the back of the photograph is the following inscription : "This likeness
of Abraham Lincoln is a faithful copy of an original ambrotype, now in possession of James K.
Magic. It was taken August 25, 1858, by Mr. T. P. Pierson, at Macomb, in this State, and is believed
to be of anterior date to any other likeness of Mr. Lincoln ever brought before the public. Mr. Magie
happened to remain over night at Macomb, at the same hotel with Mr. Lincoln, and the next morning
took a walk about town, and upon Mr. Magie's invitation they stepped into Mr. Pierson's establish-
ment, and the ambrotype of which this is a copy was the result. Mr. Lincoln, upon entering, looked
at the camera as though he was unfamiliar with such an instrument, and then remarked : ' Well, do
you want to take a shot at me with thtft thing?' He was shown to a glass, where he was told to
' fix up,' but declined, saying it would not be much of a likeness if he fixed up any. The old neighbors
and acquaintances of Mr. Lincoln in Illinois, upon seeing this picture, are apt to exclaim : 'There 1
that's the best likeness of Mr. Lincoln that I ever saw ! ' The dress he wore in this picture is the same
in which he made his famous canvass with Senator Douglas." This inscription was written by J. C.
Power, now dead, but for many years custodian of the Lincoln monument in Springfield.
LINCOLN EARNS A DOLLAR.
boat, and wondering
whether I could make it
stronger or improve it in
any part, when two men
with trunks came down
to the shore in carriages,
and looking at the different
boats, singled out mine,
and asked, 'Who owns
this ? ' I answered modest-
ly, 'I do.' 'Will you, 'said
one of them, ' take us and
our trunks out to the steam-
er?' ' Certainly,' said I.
I was very glad to have the
chance of earning some-
thing, and supposed that
each of them would give
me a couple of bits. The
trunks were put in my
boat, the passengers seated
themselves on them, and I
sculled them out to the
steamer. They got on
board, and I lifted the
trunks and put them on the
deck. The steamer was
about to put on steam
again, when I called out,
' You have forgotten to pay
me.' Each of them took
from his pocket a silver
half-dollar and threw it
on the bottom of my boat.
I could scarcely believe
my eyes as I picked up the
money. You may think
it was a very little thing,
and in these days it seems to me like a trifle, but it was a most important inci-
dent in my life. I could scarcely credit that I, the poor boy, had earned a dol-
lar in less than a day; that by honest work I had earned a dollar. I was a
more hopeful and thoughtful boy from that time."
Soon after this, while he was working for Mr. Gentry, the
leading citizen of Gentryville, his employer decided to send a
load of produce to New Orleans, and chose young Lincoln to go
as "bow-hand," "to work the front oars." For this trip he
received eight dollars a month and his passage back.
Only living son of Josiah Crawford, who lent Lincoln the
Weems's "Life of Washington." To our representative in Indi-
ana,who secured this picture of Mr. Crawford, he said, when asked
if he remembered the Lincolns : " Oh, yes ; I remember them,
although I was not Abraham's age. He was twelve years older than
I. One day I ran in, calling out, ' Mother ! mother ! Aaron Grigs-
by is sparking Sally Lincoln; I saw him kiss her ! ' Mother scolded
me, and told me I must stop watching Sally, or I wouldn't get to the
wedding. [It will be remembered that Sally Lincoln was ' help '
in the Crawford family, and that she afterwards married Aaron
Grigsby.] Neighbors thought lots more of each other then than
now, and it seems like everybody liked the Lincolns. We were well
acquainted, for Mr. Thomas Lincoln was a good carpenter, and
made the cupboard, mantels, doors, and sashes in our old home that
was burned down."
ABRAHAM LINCOLN. NOW FIRST PUBLISHED.
After a photograph in the collection of Mr. J. C. Browne of Philadelphia.
MISSISSIPPI RIVER FLATBOAT.
EARLY EDUCATION. BOOKS ABRAHAM READ. THE JONES GROCERY
STORE. LIFE ON THE RIVER.
ITH all his hard living and hard work, Lin-
coln was getting, in this period, a desultory
kind of education. Not that he received
much schooling. He went to school " by
littles," he says ; "in all it did not amount
to more than a year." And, if we accept
his own description of the teachers, it was,
perhaps, just as well that it was only ' ' by
littles." "No qualification was ever re-
quired of a teacher beyond ' readin' , writin' , and cipherin' to the
rule of three.' If a straggler supposed to understand Latin
happened to sojourn in the neighborhood, he was looked upon
as a wizard." But more or less of the schoolroom is a matter
of small importance if a boy has learned to read, and to think
of what he reads. And that, this boy had learned. His stock of
books was small, but he knew them thoroughly, and they were
good books to know: the Bible, "JEsop's Fables," "Robinson
70 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
Crusoe," Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress," a "History of the
United States," Weems's "Life of Washington," and the
" Statutes of Indiana." These are the chief ones we know
about. He did not own them all, but sometimes had to borrow
them from the neighbors : a practice which resulted in at least
one casualty, for Weems's "Life of Washington" he allowed
to get wet, and to make good the loss he had to pull fodder
three days. No matter. The book became his then, and he
could read it as he would. Fortunately he took this curious
work in profound seriousness, which a wide-awake boy would
hardly be expected to do to-day. Washington became an
exalted figure in his imagination ; and he always contended
later, when the question of the real character of the first Presi-
dent was brought up, that it was wiser to regard him as a god-
like being, heroic in nature and deeds, as Weems did, than to
contend that he was only a man who, if wise and good, still
made mistakes and indulged in follies, like other men.
In 1861, addressing the Senate of the State of New Jersey, he
" May I be pardoned if, upon this occasion, I mention that away back in.
my childhood, the earliest days of my being able to read, I got hold of a small
book, such a one as few of the younger members have ever seen Weems's
' Life of Washington.' I remember all the accounts there given of the battle-
fields and struggles for the liberties of the country, and none fixed themselves
upon my imagination so deeply as the struggle here at Trenton, New Jersey.
The crossing of the river, the contest with the Hessians, the great hardships
endured at that time, all fixed themselves on my memory more than any single
Revolutionary event ; and you all know, for you have all been boys, how these
early impressions last longer than any others. I recollect thinking then, boy
even though I was, that there must have been something more than common
that these men struggled for."
Besides these books he borrowed many. He once told a
friend that he ' ' read through every book he had ever heard of
in that country, for a circuit of fifty miles." From everything
he read he made long extracts, using a turkey-buzzard pen and
brier-root ink. .When he had no paper he would write on a
board, and thus preserve his selections until he secured a copy-
book. The wooden fire-shovel was his usual slate, and on its
back he ciphered with a charred stick, shaving it off when cov-
ered. The logs and boards in his vicinity he filled with his
figures and quotations. By night he read and worked as
LINCOLN'S THIRST FOR KNOWLEDGE.
long as there was light, and he
kept a book in the crack of the
logs in his loft, to have it at
hand at peep of day. When
acting as ferryman, in his nine-
teenth year, anxious, no doubt,
to get through the books of the
house where he boarded, before
he left the place, he read every
night " till midnight." *
Every lull in his daily labor
he used for reading, rarely going
to his work without a book.
"When ploughing or cultivating
the rough fi e 1 d s of Spencer
County, he found frequently a
half hour for reading. At the
end of every long row the horse
was allowed to rest, and Lincoln
had his book out, and was
perched on stump or fence,
almost as soon as the plough
had come to a standstill. One
of the few people still left in
Gentryville who remembers Lin-
coln, Captain John Lamar, tells
*The first authorized sketch of Lin-
coln's life was written by the late John L t
Scripps of the Chicago "Tribune," who
went to Springfield at Mr. Lincoln's re-
quest, and by him was 'furnished the data
for a campaign biography. In a letter
written to Mr. Herndon after the death of
Lincoln, which Herndon turned over to me,
Scripps relates that in writing his book he
stated that Lincoln as a youth read Plutarch's "Lives." This he did simply because,
as a rule, almost every boy in the West in the early days did read Plutarch. When
the advance sheets of the book reached Mr. Lincoln, he sent for the author and said,
gravely: "That paragraph wherein you state that I read Plutarch's ' Lives ' was not
true when you wrote it, for up to that moment in my life I had never seen that early
contribution to human history ; but I want your book, even if it is nothing more than a
campaign sketch, to be faithful to the facts ; and in order that that statement might be
literally true, I secured the book a few days ago, and have sent for you to tell you I have
just read it through." JESSE W. WEIK.
Copyright, 1894 by D. Appleton & Co., publishers of Hern-
don's "Life of Lincoln,'' and reproduced by special
The son of Joseph Hanks, with whom Thomas
Lincoln learned the carpenter's trade, and a cousin
of Nancy Hanks Lincoln. John Hanks lived
with Thomas Lincoln in Indiana, from about
1823 to 1827, then returned to Kentucky, and from
there emigrated to Illinois. It was largely
through his influence that Thomas Lincoln and
Dennis Hanks went to the Sangamon country in
1830. When Mr. Lincoln first left home he and
John Hanks worked together. In 1831 they made
a trip to New Orleans on a flatboat. It was John
Hanks who, in 1860, accompanied Governor
Oglesby to the old Lincoln farm in Macon
County, to select the rails Lincoln had split, and
it was he who carried them into the convention
of the Republican party of Illinois, which nomi-
nated Lincoln as its candidate. John Hanks was
an illiterate man, being able neither to read nor
write ; but he was honest and kindly, and his
reminiscences of Mr. Lincoln's early life, gathered
by Mr. Herndon and others, are regarded by all
who knew him as trustworthy. After Mr. Lin-
coln's election to the Presidency, he desired an
Indian agency ; but his lack of even a rudimentary
education made it impossible to give it to him.
to this day of riding to mill with
his father, and seeing, as they
drove along, a boy sitting on the
top rail of an old-fashioned stake-
and-rider worm fence, reading so
intently that he did not notice
their approach. His father, turn-
ing to him. said: '"John, look
at that boy yonder, and mark my
words, he will make a smart man
out of himself. I may not see it T
but you'll see if my words don't
come true." "That boy was
Abraham Lincoln," adds Mr.
In his habits of reading and
studv the bov had little encour-
agement from his father, but his
step-mother did all she could
for him. Indeed, between the
two there soon grew up a rela-
tion of touching gentleness and
confidence. In one of the inter-
views a biographer of Mr. Lin-
coln sought with her before her
death, Mrs. Lincoln said:
" I induced my husband to permit Abe to read and study at
home, as well as at school. At first he was not easily reconciled
to it, but finally he too seemed willing to encourage him to a
certain extent. Abe was a dutiful son to me always, and we took
particular care when he was reading not to disturb him would
let him read on and on till he quit of his own accord."
This consideration of his step-mother won the boy's confidence,
and he rarely copied anything that he did not take it to her to
read, asking her opinion of it ; and often, when she did not
understand it, explaining the meaning in his plain and simple
No newspaper ever escaped him. One man in Gentryville,
Mr. Jones, the storekeeper, took a Louisville paper, and here
Lincoln went regularly to read and discuss its contents. All the
men and boys of the neighborhood gathered there, and every-
pMMLBM.bj D Appfetoo * Co., pablMien <*Heni-
d* Life of Lincoln,- 1 and reproduced bj special
JUDGE JOHX PTrCHER-
A lawyer of Rockport. Indiana, at the time
the Lincoln* lived near Genrryville. An essay of
Mr. Lincoln's, composed when be was about nine-
teen, was submitted to Mr. Pitcher, who declared
the " world couldn't beat it : " and he seems to
bare taken a kindly interest in the author from
that time forward, lending him books freely from
his law office. Mr. Pitcher was still living in 1889,
in Mt. Yernon. Indiana, having reached the age
of ninety-three years. His reminiscences of the
boyhood of Lincoln are embodied in Herndon's
SLAVERY IN INDIANA.
Drawn from the original, in the
United States National Museum, at
Washington, D. C. These collars
were need hi Indiana and Illinois hi
thing which the paper related was sub-
jected to their keen, shrewd common-
sense. It was not long before young
Lincoln became the favorite member of
the group, the one listened to most re-
spectfully. Politics were warmly dis-
cussed by these Gentryville citizens, and
it may be that sitting on the counter of
Jones's grocery Lincoln even argued on
slavery. It certainly was one of the live
questions in Indiana at that date.
For several years after the organiza-
tion of the Territory, and in spite of the
Ordinance of 1787. a system of thinly
disguised slavery had existed : and it
took a sharp struggle to bring the State
in without some form of the institution.
So uncertain was the result that, when
decided, the word passed from mouth to
mouth all over Hoosierdom, " She has come in free, she has come
in free ! " Even in 1820. four years after the admission to State-
hood, the census showed one hundred
and ninety slaves, nearly all of them in
the southwest corner, where the Lin-
coins lived, and it was not. in reality,
until 1821 that the State Supreme
Court put an end to the question. In
Illinois in 1822-1824 there was carried
on one of the most violent contests
between the friends and opponents of
slavery which occurred before the re-
peal of the Missouri Compromise. The
effort to secure slave labor was nearly
successful. In the campaign, pamph-
lets pro and con literally inundated
the State ; the pulpits took it up ; and
"almost every stump in every county
had its bellowing, indignant orator."
So violent a commotion so near their
borders COUld hardly have failed tO United State* National Museum, at
> r* ... Washington. D. C. Oifed paper was
reach (jrentryville. sometimes need in the lanterns.
PTXCHED <HEET-IBOX LAXTERX.
There had been other anti-slavery agitation going on within
hearing for several years. In 1804 a number of Baptist ministers
of Kentucky started a crusade against the institution, which re-
sulted in a hot contest in the denomination, and the organization of
the "Baptist Licking- Locust Association Friends of Humanity."
The Rev. Jesse Head, the minister who married Thomas Lincoln
and Nancy Hanks, talked freely and boldly against slavery ; and
one of their old friends, Christopher Columbus Graham, the man
who was present at their wedding, says : " Tom and Nancy Lin-
coln and Sally Bush were just steeped full of Jesse Head's
notions about the wrong of slavery and the rights of man as
explained by Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine." In 1806
Charles Osborn began to preach "immediate emancipation" in
Tennessee. Ten years later he started a paper in Ohio, devoted
to the same idea, and in 1819 he transferred his crusade to Indi-
ana. In 1821 Benjamin Lundy started, in Tennessee, the famous
"Grenius," devoted to the same doctrine ; and in 1822, at Shelby-
ville, only about one hundred
miles from Gfentryville, was
started a paper similar in its
views, the "Abolition Intelli-
At that time there were in
Kentucky five or six abolition
societies, and in Illinois was an
organization called the "Friends
of Humanity. ' ' Probably young
Lincoln heard but vaguely of
these movements ; but of some
of them he must have heard, and
he must have connected them
with the " Speech of Mr. Pitt on
the Slave Trade ; " with Merry's
elegy, "The Slaves;" and with
the discussion given in his
"Which has the Most to com-
plain of, the Indian or the
Negro?" all of which tradition
declares he was fond of repeat-
ing. It is not impossible that,
JOHN W. LAMAR.
Mr. Lamar was a young boy in Spencer County
when Lincoln left Indiana, but was old enough
to have seen much of him and to have known his
characteristics and his reputation in the county.
He is still living near his old home.
LINCOLN DEVELOPS INTO AN ORATOR.
BEV. ALLEN BROONEIl.
An Indiana acquaintance of Lincoln, still living
near Gentryville. " Mr. Brooner's mother was a
friend of Nancy Hanks Lincoln. In the fall of
1818 Mrs. Brooner was very sick, and Mrs. Lincoln
called to see her. The sick woman was very de-
spondent, and said : ' Mrs. Lincoln, I am going to
die. You will not see me again while living.'
' Tut te tut. You must not say that. Why, you
will live longer than I. So cheer up,' answered
Mrs. Lincoln. Then, after a few parting words,
Mrs. Lincoln went home. The next day she was
very ill and in a few days she died. A few days
later Mrs. Brooner died. When the tombstone
was placed at Mrs. Lincoln's grave, no one could
state positively which was Mrs. Brooner's and
which Mrs. Lincoln's grave. Mr. Allen Brooner
gave his opinion, and the stone was placed ; but the
iron fence encloses both graves, which lie in a half-
acre tract of land owned by the United States Gov-
ernment. Mr. Allen Brooner, after his mother's
death, became a minister of the United Brethren
Church, and moved to Illinois. Like all of the old
settlers of Gentryville, he remembers the departure
of the Lincolns for Illinois. 'When the Lin-
coins were getting ready to leave,' says Mr.
Brooner, 'Abraham and his step-brother, John
Johnston, came over to our house to swap a horse
for a yoke of oxen. John did all the talking. If
any one had been asked that day which would
make the greatest success in life, I think the
answer would have been John Johnston.' " *
* From an unpublished MS. by A.
as Frederick Douglas first real-
ized his own condition in read-
ing a school-speaker, the "Co-
lumbian Orator," so Abraham
Lincoln first felt the wrong of
slavery in reading his "Ameri-
Lincoln was not only win-
ning in these days in the Jones
grocery store a reputation as a
talker and story-teller ; he was
becoming known as a kind of
backwoods orator. He could
repeat with effect all the poems
and speeches in his various
school-readers, he could imitate
to perfection the wandering
preachers who came to Gentry-
ville, and he could make a
political speech so stirring that
he drew a crowd about him
every time he mounted a stump.
The applause he won was sweet ;
and frequently he indulged his
gifts when he ought to have been
at work so thought his employ-
ers and Thomas his father. It
was trying, no doubt, to the
hard-pushed farmers, to see the
men who ought to have been
cutting grass or chopping wood
throw down their sickles or axes
and group around a boy, when-
ever he mounted a stump to de-
velop a pet theory or repeat
with variations yesterday's ser-
mon. In his fondness for speech-
making he attended all the trials
of the neighborhood, and fre-
quently walked fifteen miles to
Boonville to attend court.
76 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
LINES FROM LINCOLN'S COPY-BOOK.
These lines were written on a leaf of a copy-book in which Lincoln wrote out the tables of weights and
measures, and the sums in connection with them. His step-mother, Sarah Bush Lincoln, gave the leaf,
with a few others from the book, to Mr. Herndon. It is now owned by Jesse W. Weik.
He wrote as well as spoke, and some of his productions were
even printed, through the influence of his admiring neighbors.
Thus a local Baptist preacher was so struck with one of Abra-
ham's essays on temperance that he sent it to Ohio, where it
appeared in some paper. Another article, on "National Poli-
tics," so pleased a lawyer of the vicinity that he declared the
" world couldn't beat it."
INFLUENCE OF THE RIVER LIFE.
In considering the different opportunities for development
which the boy had at this time, his months spent on the Ohio as
a ferryman and his trips down the Mississippi should not be for-
gotten. In fact, all that Abraham Lincoln saw of men and the
world outside of Gentryville and its neighborhood, until after he
was twenty-one years of age, he saw on these rivers. For many
years the Ohio and the Mississippi were the Appian Way, the
one route to the world for the Western settlers. To preserve it
they had been willing in early times to go to war with Spain or
with France, to secede from the Union, even to join Spain or
France against the United States if either country would insure
their right to their highway. In the long years in which the own-
ership of the great river was unsettled, every man of them had
come to feel with Benjamin Franklin, " a neighbor might as well
ask me to sell my street-door." In fact, this water-way was their
"street-door," and all that many of them ever saw of the world
passed here. Up and down the rivers was a continual movement.
Odd craft of every kind possible ou a river went by: "arks"
FRAGMENT FROM A LEAF OF LINCOLN'S EXERCISE-BOOK.
LINCOLN'S EXPERIENCE AS A BOATMAN.
and "sleds," with tidy
cabins where families
lived, and where one
could see the washing
stretched, the children
playing, the mother on
pleasant days rocking
and sewing ; keel-boats,
which dodged in and out
and turned inquisitive
noses up all the creeks
and bayous ; great fleets
from the All eghanies ,
made up of a score or
more of timber rafts, and
manned by forty or fifty
rough boatmen; "Or-
leans boats," loaded with
flour, hogs, produce of all
kinds ; pirogues, made
from great trees; "broad-
horns;" curious nonde-
scripts worked by a
wheel; and, after 1812,
All this traffic was
leisurely. Men had time to tie up and tell the news and show
their wares. Even the steamboats loitered as it pleased them.
They knew no schedule. They stopped anywhere to let passen-
gers off. They tied up wherever it was convenient, to wait for
fresh wood to be cut and loaded, or for repairs to be made.
Waiting for repairs seems, in fact, to have absorbed a great deal
of the time of these early steamers. They were continually run-
ning on to "sawyers," or "planters," or " wooden islands," and
they blew up with a regularity which was monotonous. Even as
late as 1842, when Charles Dickens made the trip down the Mis-
sissippi, he was often gravely recommended to keep as far aft as
possible, "because the steamboats generally blew up forward."
It was this varied river life with which Abraham Lincoln
came into contact as a ferryman and boatman. Who can believe
that he could see it and be part of it without learning much of
The store in Gentryville in which Lincoln first made his
reputation as a debater and story-teller was owned by Mr.
Jones. The year before the Lincolns moved to Illinois
Abraham clerked in the store, and it is said that when he
left Indiana Mr. Jones sold 'him a pack of goods which he
peddled on his journey. Mr. Jones was the representative
from Spencer County in the State legislature from 1838 to
1841. He is no longer living. His son, Captain William
Jones, is still in Gentryville.
80 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
the life and the world beyond him ? Every time a steamboat
or raft tied up near Anderson Creek and he with his companions
boarded it and saw its mysteries and talked with its crew, every
time he rowed out with passengers to a passing steamer, who can
doubt that he came away with new ideas and fresh energy ? The
trips to New Orleans were, to a thoughtful boy, an education of
no mean value. It was the most cosmopolitan and brilliant city
of the United States at that date, and there young Lincoln saw
life at its intensest.
LINCOLN'S REPUTATION IN INDIANA. REMINISCENCES OP HIS
N spite of the crudeness of these early opportuni-
ties for learning ; in spite of the fact that he had
no wise direction, that he was brought up by a
father with no settled purpose, and that he lived
in a pioneer community, where a young man's
life at best is but a series of makeshifts, Lincoln
soon developed a determination to make some-
thing out of himself, and a desire to know,
which led him to neglect no opportunity to learn.
The only unbroken outside influence which directed and stim-
ulated him in his ambitions was that coming first from his
mother, then from his step-mother. These two women, both of
them of unusual earnestness and sweetness of spirit, were one
or the other of them at his side throughout his youth and young
manhood. The ideal they held before him was the simple ideal
of the early American, that if a boy is upright and industrious
he may aspire to any place within the gift of the country. The
boy's nature told him they were right. Everything he read con-
firmed their teachings, and he cultivated, in every way open to
him, his passion to know and to be something.
There are many proofs that Lincoln's characteristics were rec-
ognized at this period by his associates ; that his determination
to excel, if not appreciated, yet made its imprint. In 1865, thirty-
five years after he left Gentryville, a biographer, anxious to save
all that was known of Lincoln in Indiana, went among his old
associates, and with a sincerity and thoroughness worthy of
LINCOLN IN 1858.
From a photograph in the possession of Mr. Stuart Brown of Springfield, Illinois. The original of this photograph
was bought in 1860, in a Springfield gallery, by Mr. D. McWilliams of Dwight, Illinois. Mr. McWilliams sent the
picture to Mr. Milton Hay Jopingfield, an intimate friend of Mr. Lincoln's, and from him received the following letter : " I
am greatly pleased with this picture of Lincoln. I think it reproduces the man as he was, in the sober expression most
habitual with him, better than any other photograph I have seen of him ; and this is the opinion of all the old familiar
acquaintances of his to whom I have shown it."
LINCOLN'S EARLY FAME AS A WRITER.
respect, interviewed them. At
that time there were still living
numbers of the people with whom
Lincoln had been brought up.
They all remembered something
of him. It is curious to note that
all of these people tell of his doing
something different from what
other boys did, something suffi-
ciently superior to have made a
keen impression upon them. In
almost every case each person had
his own special reason for admir-
ing Lincoln. A facility in making
rhymes and writing essays was the
admiration of many, who con-
sidered it the more remarkable
because ' ' essays and poetry were
not taught in school," and "Abe
took it up on his own account."
Many others were struck by the
clever use he made of his gift for
writing. The wit he showed in
taking revenge for a social slight
by a satire on the Grigsbys, who had failed to invite him to a
wedding, made a lasting impression in Gentryville. That he
should write so well as to be able to humiliate his enemies more
deeply than if he had resorted to the method of taking revenge
current in the country, and thrashed them, seemed to his friends
a mark of surprising superiority.
Others remembered his quick-wittedness in helping his
"We are indebted to Kate Roby," says Mr. Herndon, "for
an incident which illustrates alike his proficiency in orthography
and his natural inclination to help another out of the mire. The
word * defied ' had been given out by Schoolmaster Crawford, but
had been misspelled several times when it came Miss Roby's
turn. ' Abe stood on the opposite side of the room,' related Miss
Roby to me in 1865, ' and was watching me. I began d-e-f , and
then I stopped, hesitating whether to proceed with an i or a y.
Looking up, I beheld Abe, a grin covering his face, and pointing
GREEN B. TAYLOR, A BOYHOOD FRIEND OP
Son of James Taylor, for whom Lin-
coln ran the ferry-boat at the mouth of
Anderson Creek. Mr. Taylor, now in his
eighty-second year, lives in South Dakota.
He remembers Mr. Lincoln perfectly, and
says that his father hired Abraham Lincoln
for one year, at six dollars a month, and that
he was "well pleased with the boy."
with his index finger to his eye. I took the hint, spelled the
word with an i, and it went through all right.' '
This same Miss Roby it was who said of Lincoln, "He was
better read then than the world knows or is likely to know
exactly. . ...r^,*^ He often and often commented or talked to
me about what he had read seemed to read it out of the book
as he went along did so to others. He was the learned boy
among us unlearned folks. He took great pains to explain ;
could do it so simply. He was diffident then, too."
^ne man was impressed by the character of the sentences he
fiad .given him fora copy. "It was considered at that time,"
said he, "that Abe
was the best penman
in the neighborhood.
One day, while he
was on a visit at my
mother's, I asked him
to write some copies
for me. He very will-
ingly consented. He
wrote several of them,
but one of them I have ^p |
never forgotten, al-
though a boy at that
time. It was this :
" ' Good boys who to their
Will all be great men
by and by.'"
CABINET MADE BY ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
Thia cabinet is now in the possession of Captain J. W. Wart-
man of Evansville, Indiana. It is of walnut, two feet in height,
and very well put together. Thomas Lincoln is said to have aided
his son in making it.
All of his comrades
remembered his stories
and his clearness in
he appeared in coin-
pany ,' ' says .Nat
Grigsby, "the boys would gather and cluster around him to hear
him talk. Mr. Lincoln was figurative in his speech, talks, and
conversation. He argued much from analogy, and explained
things hard for us to understand by stories, maxims, tales, and
figures. He would almost always point his lesson or idea by
LINCOLN'S RETORT TO A BOASTING JOCKEY.
PIGEON CREEK CHURCH, WHIC1I THE LINCOLNS ATTENDED IN INDIANA.
From a photograph loaned by W. W. Admire of Chicago. This little log church, or "meetin 1 house,"
is where the Lincolns attended services in Indiana. The pulpit is said to have been made by Thomas
Lincoln. The building was razed about fifteen years ago, after having been used for several years as a
some story that was plain and near us, that we might instantly
see the force and bearing of what he said."
There are many proofs that he was an authority on all sub-
jects, even the country jockeys bringing him their stories and
seeking to inspire his enthusiasm. Captain John Lamar of
Gentryville, who was a very small boy in the neighborhood
when Lincoln was a young man, is still fond of describing a
scene he witnessed once, which shows with what care even the
" heroes " of the country tried to impress young Lincoln. " Uncle
Jimmy Larkins, as everybody called him," says Mr. Lamar,
"was a great hero in my childish eyes. Why, I cannot now
say, without it was his manners. There had been a big fox-
chase, and Uncle Jimmy was telling about it. Of course he
was the hero. I was only a little shaver, and I stood in front
of Uncle Jimmy, looking up into his eyes ; but he never noticed
me. He looked at Abraham Lincoln, and said : ' Abe, I've got
the best horse in the world ; he won the race and never drew
a long breath.' But Abe paid no attention to Uncle Jimmy,
THE FIRST LINCOLN MONUMENT.
From a photograph made for this work. When Abraham Lincoln left Indiana, in 1830, his friend
James Gentry planted, in remembrance of him, near the Lincoln cabin, a cedar tree. It still Btands, sturdy
and strong, though it is stripped of twigs as high as one can reach. Those who point out the tree explain
the bareness by saying : "The folks who come lookin' around have taken twigs until you can't reach any
more very handy."
and I got mad at the big, overgrown fellow, and wanted him
to listen to my hero's story. Uncle Jimmy was determined
that Abe should hear, and repeated the story. 'I say, Abe,
I have the best horse in the world; after all that running
he never drew a long breath.' Then Abe, looking down at my
little dancing hero, said: 'Well, Larkins, why don't you tell
us how many short breaths he drew ? ' This raised a laugh on
Uncle Jimmy, and he got mad, and declared he'd fight Abe if he
wasn't so big. He jumped around until Abe quietly said:
'Now, Larkins, if you don't shut up I'll throw you in that
water.' I was very uneasy and angry at the way my hero was
treated, but I lived to change my views about heroes."
LINCOLN'S AFFECTION FOR HIS STEPMOTHER.
There is one other testimony to his character as a boy which
should not be omitted. It is that of his stepmother :
"Abe was a good boy, and I can say what scarcely one
woman a mother can say in a thousand : Abe never gave me a
cross word or look, and never refused, in fact or appearance, to
do anything I requested him. I never gave him a cross word in
all my life. . . . His mind and mine what little I had
seemed to run together. He was here after he was elected Presi-
dent. He was a dutiful son to me always. I think he loved me
truly. I had a son, John, who was raised with Abe. Both were
good boys ; but I must say, both now being dead, that Abe was
the best boy I ever saw, or expect to see."
OLD POST FOKD ACROSS THE WABASH RIVEU, WHERE THE LINCOLNS CROSSED FROM INDIANA TO ILLINOIS.
From a photograph made for this work. The route by which the Lincolns went into Illinois from
Indiana has always been a question in dispute. Some of the acquaintances of the family still living in
Indiana claim that they followed the line marked on our map (page 45). Others say that they went from
Gentryville to the Old Post Ford across the \Vabash. The route on the map was drawn on the supposi-
tion that they would have taken the road by which they would have avoided the greatest number of water-
courses. Information has come to us since the map was made which shows that they went by Vincennes.
Mr. Jesse W. Weik says that Dennis Hanks, who was in the party, told him in 1880 that they went through
Vfncennes. Colonel Chapman of Charleston, the grandson of Sarah Bush Lincoln, told Mr. Weik that
in February, 1861, when Mr. Lincoln visited his mother for the last time, he told him that the settlers
passed through Vincennes, where they remained a day. There, Lincoln said, they saw a printing-press for
the first time. At Palestine, on the Illinois side of the Wabash, he remembered seeing a large crowd
around the United States Land Office, and a travelling juggler performing sleight-of-hand tricks. We also
know that they entered Decatur from the south, near the present line of the Illinois Central. This Mr.
Lincoln told Mr. H. C. Whitney.
AMUSEMENTS OF LINCOLN'S LIFE IN INDIANA. HIS FIRST SORROWS.
F Abraham Lincoln' s early struggle for both liveli-
hood and education was rough and hard, his life
was not without amusements. At home the rude
household was overflowing with life. There were
Abraham and his sister, a stepbrother and two
stepsisters, and a cousin of Nancy Hanks Lin-
coln, Dennis Hanks, whom misfortune had made
an inmate of the Lincoln home quite enough to
plan sports and mischief and keep time from
growing dull. Thomas Lincoln and Dennis Hanks were both
famous story-tellers, and the Lincolns spent many a cozy even-
ing about their cabin fire, repeating the stories they knew.
GRAVE OP LINCOLN'S SISTER.
From a photograph taken for this work. Sarah, or Nancy, Lincoln was born in Elizabethtown,
Kentucky, in 1807. In 1826 she married Aaron Grigsby, and a year later died. She was buried not far
from Gentryville, in what is now called "Old Pigeon Cemetery." Her grave is marked by the rude stone
directly over the star. The marble monument in the centre is that of her husband.
LINCOLN AS A SPORTSMAN.
CORN-HUSK BKOOMS AND MOPS.
Photographed for this work from the origi-
nals, in the United States National, Museum at
Washington. Corn-husks were used by the pio-
neers of the West to make brooms, brushes, mats,
Hanks, who says : " No doubt
about A. Lincoln' s killing the
turkey. He done it with his
father's rifle, made by Wil-
liam Lutes of Bullitt County,
Kentucky. I have killed a
hundred deer with her my-
self ; turkeys too numerous
But there were many other
country sports which he en-
joyed to the full. He went
swimming in the evenings ;
fished with the other boys in
* Preserved in " Abraham Lincoln,
lay and John Hay. Volume I., page 639,
Of course the boys hunted.
Not that Abraham ever became
a true sportsman ; indeed, he
seems to have lacked the genu-
ine sporting instinct. In a curi-
ous autobiography, written
entirely in the third person,
which Mr. Lincoln prepared at
the request of a friend in I860,*
he says of his exploits as a
hunter : " A few days before the
completion of his eighth year,
in the absence of his father, a
flock of wild turkeys approached
the new log cabin; and Abra-
ham, with a rifle gun, standing
inside, shot through a crack and
killed one of them. He has
never since pulled the trigger
on any larger game." This ex-
ploit is confirmed by Dennis
A LINCOLN CHAIR.
This chair was made from rails split by Abraham
Lincoln when he was living in Spencer County, In-
Complete Works." Edited by John G. Nico-
The Century Company.
Pigeon Creek, and caught clmbs and suckers enough to delight
any boy ; he wrestled, jumped, and ran races at the noon rests.
He was present at every country horse-race and fox-chase.
The sports he preferred were those which brought men to-
gether: the spelling-school, the husking-bee, the "raising;" and
of all these he was the life by his wit, his stories, his good
nature, his doggerel verses, his practical jokes, and by a rough
kind of politeness for even in Indiana in those times there was
a notion of politeness, and one of Lincoln's schoolmasters had
even given "lessons in manners." Lincoln seems to have
profited in a degree by them ; for Mrs. Crawford, at whose home
he worked some time, declares that he always "lifted his hat
and bowed" when he made his appearance.
There was, of course, a rough gallantry among the young
people ; and Lincoln's old comrades and friends in Indiana have
left many tales of how he "went to see the girls," of how he
brought in the biggest back-log and made the brightest fire ; then
of how the young people, sitting around it, watching the way the
sparks flew, told
He helped pare
apples, shell corn,
and crack nuts.
He took the girls
to meeting and to
spelling -school ,
though he was not
often allowed to
take part in the
for the one who
"chose first "
and that was
equivalent to win-
ning, as the others
knew that "he
would stand up
PIONEER KITCHEN UTENSILS.
Drawn for this work from the original articles, in the United States
National Museum, through the courtesy of the director, Mr. G. Brown
Goode. The articles in the group are a hominy mortar and pestle, water
gourd and gourd dipper, wooden pails and tub, and a wooden piggin.
LINCOLN'S EARLIEST ROMANCE.
THE HILL NEAR GENTRYVILLE FROM WHICH THE LINCOLNS TOOK THEIR LAST LOOK AT TIIEIU
approach to sentiment at this time, of which we know, is re-
corded in a story Lincoln once told to an acquaintance in Spring-
field. It was a rainy day, and he was sitting with his feet on the
window-sill, his eyes on the street, watching the rain. Suddenly
he looked up and said :
" Did you ever write out a story in your mind '( I did when
I was a little codger. One day a wagon with a lady and two
girls and a man broke down near us, and while they were fixing
up, they cooked in our kitchen. The woman had books and
read us stories, and they were the first I ever had heard. I took
a great fancy to one of the girls ; and when they were gone I
thought of her a great deal, and one day when I was sitting out
in the sun by the house I wrote out a story in my mind. I
thought I took my father's horse and followed the wagon, and
finally I found it, and they were surprised to see me. I talked
with the girl and persuaded her to elope with me ; and that
night I put her on my horse, and we started off across the prairie.
After several hours we came to a camp ; and when we rode up
we found it was the one we had left a few hours before, and we
LINCOLN'S FIHST HOME IN ILLINOIS.
After a photograph owned by H. E. Barker of Springfield, Illinois. A printed description accom-
panying the photograph says : " The above is an exact reproduction of a photograph taken in 1865 of
Abraham Lincoln's cabin on the banks of the Sangamon River. The cabin was located upon Section 28,
Harristown Township, Macon County, Illinois." The genuineness of the picture is attested by the Hon.
Richard J. Oglesby, at that time Governor of Illinois.
went in. The next night we tried again, and the same thing
happened the horse came back to the same place ; and then we
concluded that we ought not to elope. I stayed until I had per-
suaded her father to give her to me. I always meant to write
that story out and publish it, and I began once ; but I concluded
it was not much of a story. But I think that was the beginning
of love with me."*
His life had its tragedies as well as its touch of romance
tragedies so real and profound that they gave dignity to all the
crudeness and poverty which surrounded him, and quickened
* Interview with Mr. T. W. S. Kidd of Springfield, Illinois, editor of " The
LINCOLN'S EARLY BEREAVEMENTS.
This broad-axe is said to have been
owned originally by Abram Bales of New
Salem ; and, according to tradition, it was
bought from him by Lincoln. After Lin-
coln forsook the woods, he sold the axe
to one Mr. Irvin. Mr. L. W. Bishop of
Petersburg now has the axe, having got-
ten it directly from Mr. Irvin. There are
a number of affidavits attesting its genu-
ineness. The axe has evidently seen hard
usage, and is now covered with a thick
coat of rust.
and intensified the melancholy tem-
perament he had inherited from his
mother. Away back in 1816, when
Thomas Lincoln had started to find a
farm in Indiana, bidding his wife be
ready to go into the wilderness on
his return, Nancy Lincoln had taken
her boy and girl to a tiny grave, that
of her youngest child ; and the three
had there said good-by to a little one
whom the children had scarcely
known, but for whom the mother's
grief was so keen that the boy never
forgot the scene.
Two years later he saw his father
make a green pine box and put his
dead mother into it, and he saw her
buried not far from their cabin,
almost without prayer. Young as
he was, it was his efforts, it is said, which brought a parson from
Kentucky, three months later, to preach the sermon and conduct
the service which seemed to the child a necessary honor to the
dead.* As sad as the death of his mother was that of his only
sister, Sarah. Married to Aaron Grigsby in 1826, she had died a
year and a half later in child-birth, a death which to her brother
must have seemed a horror and a mystery.
Apart from these family sorrows there was all the crime and
misery of the community all of which came to his ears and
awakened his nature. He even saw in those days one of his
companions go suddenly mad. The young man never recovered
his reason, but sank into idiocy. All night he would croon
plaintive songs, and Lincoln himself tells how, fascinated by this
mysterious malady, he used to rise before daylight to cross the
fields and listen to this funeral dirge of the reason. In spite of
the poverty and rudeness of his life the depth of his nature was
unclouded. He could feel intensely, and his imagination was
quick to respond to the touch of mystery.
* It still happens frequently in the mountain districts of Tennessee that the
funeral services are not held until months after the burial. A gentleman who has
lived much in the South tells of a man marrying a second wife at a decent interval
after the death of his first, but still before the funeral of the first had taken place.
THE LINCOLN'S LEAVE INDIANA. THE JOURNEY TO ILLINOIS.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN STARTS OUT FOR HIMSELF.
N the spring of 1830, when Abraham was twenty-
one years old, his father, Thomas Lincoln, de-
cided to leave Indiana. The reason Dennis
Hanks gives for this removal was a disease
called the "milk-sick." Abraham Lincoln's
mother, Nancy Hanks Lincoln, and several of
their relatives who had followed them from
Kentucky had died of it. The cattle had been
carried off by it. Neither brute nor human life
seemed to be safe. As Dennis Hanks says : " This was reason
enough (ain't it?) for leaving." Any one who has travelled
through the portions of Spencer County in which the Lincolns
settled will respect Thomas Lincoln for his energy in moving.
When covered with timber, as the land was when he chose his
farm, it no doubt promised well; but fourteen years of hard
labor showed him that the soil was niggardly and the future
of the country unpromising. To-day, sixty -five years since the
Lincolns left Spencer County, the country remains as it was then,
dull, commonplace, unfruitful. The towns show no signs of
energy or prosperity. There are no leading streets or build-
ings ; no man's house is better than his neighbor's, and every
man's house is ordinary. For a long distance on each side of
Gentryville, as one passes by rail, no superior farm is to be seen,
no prosperous mine or manufactory. It is a dead, monotonous
country, where no possibilities of quick wealth have been dis-
covered, and which only centuries of tilling and fertilizing can
make prosperous. Thomas Lincoln did well to leave Indiana.
The place chosen for their new home was the Sangamon
country in central Illinois. It was at that day a country of great
renown in the West, the name meaning " The land where there
is plenty to eat." One of the family John Hanks, a cousin of
Dennis was already there, and the inviting reports he had sent
to Indiana were no doubt what led the Lincolns to decide on
Illinois as their future home.
Gentryville saw young Lincoln depart with real regret, and
PARTING FROM OLD FRIENDS IN INDIANA.
his friends gave him a score of
rude proofs that he would not
be forgotten. Even to-day there
is not a family living in and
around Gentry ville, who remem-
bers the Lincolns at all, who
has not some legend to repeat
of their departure. They tell
how in those days "neighbors
were like relatives," and every-
body offered some kindly ser-
vice to the movers as a parting
sign of good-will. The entire
Lincoln family was invited to
spend the last night before
starting, with Mr. Gentry. He
was so loath to part with Lin-
coln that he "accompanied the
movers along the road a spell."
After they were gone, one of
his sons, James Gentry, planted
a cedar tree in memory of Abra-
ham, which now marks the site
of the Lincoln home.
The spot on the hill over-
looking Buckthorn valley,
where the Lincolns said good-by
to their old home and to the
home of Sarah Lincoln Grigsby, to the grave of the mother and
wife, to all their neighbors and friends, is still pointed out.
Buckthorn valley held many recollections dear to them all, but
to no one of the company was the place dearer than to Abraham.
It is certain that he felt the parting keenly, and he certainly
never forgot his years in the Hoosier State. One of the most
touching experiences he relates in all his published letters is
his emotion at visiting his old Indiana home fourteen years after
he had left it. So strongly was he moved by the scenes of his
first conscious sorrows, efforts, joys, ambitions, that he put into
verse the feelings they awakened.*
* Letter to Johnston, April 18, 1846. "Abraham Lincoln. Complete Works."
Edited by John G. Xicolay and John Hay. Volume I., pages 86, 87. The Century Co.
JOHN E. ROLL, WHO HELPED LINCOLN BUILD
Born in Green Village, New Jersey, June 4,
1814. He went to Illinois in 1830, the year in
which Mr. Lincoln went, settling in Sangamon
town, where he had relatives. It was here he
met Lincoln, and made the "pins" for the flat-
hoat. Later Mr. Roll went to Springfield. A
quarter of the city is now known as "Roll's
addition." Mr. Roll was well acquainted with
Lincoln, and when the President left Springfield
he gave Mr. Roll his dog Fido. Mr. Roll knew
Stephen A. Douglas well, and carries a watch
which once belonged to the " Little Giant."
While he never at-
tempted to conceal the
poverty and hardship of
these days, and would
speak humorously of the
"pretty pinching times"
he saw, he never regard-
ed his life at this time
as mean or pitiable. Fre-
quently he talked to his
friends in later days of
his boyhood, and always
with apparent pleasure.
"Mr. Lincoln told this
story" (of his youth),
says Leonard Swett, "as
the story of a happy
childhood. There was
nothing sad or pinched,
and nothing of want, and
no allusion to want in
any part of it. His own
description of his youth
was that of a joyous,
happy boyhood. It was told with mirth and glee, and illus-
trated by pointed anecdote, often interrupted by his jocund
And he was right. There was nothing ignoble or mean in this
Indiana pioneer life. It was rude, but with only the rudeness
which the ambitious are willing to endure in order to push on to
a better condition than they otherwise could know. These people
did not accept their hardships apathetically. They did not
regard them as permanent. They were only the temporary
deprivations necessary in order to accomplish what they had
home into the country to do. For this reason they endured
copefully all that was hard. It is worth notice, too, that there
was nothing belittling in their life. ; there was no pauperism, no
shirking. Each family provided for its own simple wants, and
had the conscious dignity which comes from being equal to a
situation. If their lives lacked culture and refinement, they were
rich in independence and self-reliance.
SA.NGAMON TOWN IN 1831.
Drawn for this work by J. McCan Davis, with
the aid of Mr. John E. Roll, a former resident.
LINCOLN IN 1859.
From a photograph in the collection of H. W. Pay, De Kalb, Illinois. The original was
made by S. M. Fassett of Chicago ; the negative was destroyed in the Chicago fire. This
picture was made at the solicitation of D. B. Cook, who says that Mrs. Lincoln pronounced it
the best likeness she had ever seen of her husband. Rajon used the Fassett picture as the
original of his etching, and Kruell has made a fine engraving of it.
LINCOLN AS A THRIFTY PEDDLER. 99
FROM INDIANA TO ILLINOIS.
The company which emigrated to Illinois included the family
of Thomas Lincoln and those of Dennis Hanks and Levi Hall, mar-
ried to Lincoln's step-sisters thirteen persons in all. They sold
land, cattle, and grain, and much of their household goods, and
were ready in March of 1830 for their journey. All the posses-
sions which the three families had to take with them were packed
into a big wagon the first one Thomas Lincoln had ever owned,
it is said to which four oxen were attached, and the caravan was
ready. The weather was still cold, the streams were swollen, and
the roads were muddy ; but the party started out bravely. Inured
to hardships, alive to all the new sights on their route, every
day brought them amusement and adventures, and especially to
young Lincoln the journey must have been of keen interest.
He drove the oxen on this trip, he tells us, and, according to
a story current in Gentryville, he succeeded in doing a fair ped-
dler's business on the route. Captain William Jones, in whose
father' s store Lincoln had spent so many hours in discussion and
in story -telling, and for whom he had worked the last winter he
was in Indiana, says that before leaving the State Abraham in-
vested all his money, some thirty-odd dollars, in notions.
Though the country through which they expected to pass was
but sparsely settled, he believed he could dispose of them. ' ' A
set of knives and forks was the largest item entered on the bill,"
says Captain Jones ; " the other items were needles, pins, thread,
buttons, and other little domestic necessities. When the Lin-
coins reached their new home, near Decatur, Illinois, Abraham
wrote back to my father, stating that he had doubled his money
on his purchases by selling them along the road. Unfortunately
we did not keep that letter, not thinking how highly we would
have prized it years afterwards."
The pioneers were a fortnight on their journey. All we know
of the route they took is from a few chance remarks of Lincoln's
to his friends to the effect that they passed through Vincennes,
where they saw a printing-press for the first time, and through
Palestine, where they saw a juggler performing sleight-of-hand
tricks. They reached Macon County, their new home, from the
south. Mr. H. C. Whitney says that once in Decatur he and
Lincoln passed the court-house together. " Lincoln walked out a
few feet in front, and, after shifting his position two or three
MODEL OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S DEVICE FOR LIFTING VESSELS OVER SHOALS.
The inscription above this model, which is shown to all visitors to the Model Hall of the Patent Office,
reads : " 6469, Abraham Lincoln, Springfield, Illinois. Improvement in method of lifting vessels over shoals.
Patented May 22, 1849." The apparatus consists of a bellows placed in each side of the hull of the craft,
just below the water-line, and worked by an odd but simple system of ropes and pulleys. When the keel
of the vessel grates against the sand or obstruction, the bellows is filled with air ; and, thus buoyed up, the
vessel is expected to float over the shoal. The model is about eighteen or twenty inches long, and looks as
if it had been whittled with a knife out of a shingle and a cigar box. There is no elaboration in the appa-
ratus beyond that necessary to show the operation of buoying the vessel over the obstructions.
times, said, as he looked up at the building, partly to himself
and partly to me : ' Here is the exact spot where I stood by our
wagon when we moved from Indiana, twenty-six years ago ; this
isn't six feet from the exact spot.' ... I asked him if he,
at that time, had expected to be a lawyer and practise law in that
court-house ; to which he replied : ' No ; I didn't know I had
sense enough to be a lawyer then.' He then told me he had fre-
quently thereafter tried to locate the route by which they had
come, and that he had decided that it was near the main line of
the Illinois Central Railroad."
The party settled some ten miles west of Decatur, in Macon
LINCOLN SPLITS RAILS FOR A PAIR OF TROUSERS. 101
County. Here John Hanks had the logs already cut for their
new home, and Lincoln, Dennis Hanks, and Hall soon had a
cabin erected. Mr. Lincoln says in his short autobiography of
1860, which he wrote in the third person: "Here they built a
log cabin, into which they removed, and made sufficient of rails
to fence ten acres of ground, fenced and broke the ground, and
raised a crop of sown corn upon it the same year. These are, or
are supposed to be, the rails about which so much is being said
just now, though these are far from being the first or only rails
ever made by Abraham."
If they were far from being his "first and only rails," they
certainly were the most famous ones he or anybody else ever
split. This was the last work he did for his father, for in the
summer of that year (1830) he exercised the right of majority
and started out to shift for himself. When he left his home y
he went empty-handed. He was already some months over
twenty-one years of age, but he had nothing in the world, not
even a suit of respectable clothes ; and one of the first pieces of
work he did was " to split four hundred rails for every yard of
brown jeans dyed with white-walnut bark that would be neces-
sary to make him a pair of trousers." He had no trade, no
profession, no spot of land, no patron, no influence. Two things
recommended him to his neighbors he was strong, and he was
a good fellow.
His strength made him a valuable laborer. Not that he was
fond of hard labor. Mrs. Crawford says : " Abe was no hand to
pitch into work like killing snakes ; " but when he did work, it
was with an ease and effectiveness which compensated his em-
ployer for the time he spent in practical jokes and extempora-
neous speeches. He would lift as much as three ordinary men,
and "My, how he would chop!" says Dennis Hanks. "His
axe would flash and bite into a sugar- tree or sycamore, and down
it would come. If you heard him fellin' trees in a clearin', you
would say there was three men at work by the way the trees fell."
Standing six feet four, he could out-lift, out-work, and out-
wrestle any man he came in contact with. Friends and employers
were proud of his prowess, and boasted of it, never failing to pit
him against any hero whose strength they heard vaunted. He
himself was proud of it, and throughout his life was fond of com-
paring himself with tall and strong men. When the committee
called on him in Springfield, in 1 860, to notify him of his nomina-
102 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
tion as President, Governor Morgan of New York was of the
number, a man of great height and brawn. "Pray, Governor,
how tall may you be ? " was Mr. Lincoln' s first question. There
is a story told of a poor man seeking a favor from him once at
the White House. He was overpowered by the idea that he
was in the presence of the President, and, his errand done, was
edging shyly out, when Mr. Lincoln stopped him, insisting that
he measure with him. The man was the taller, as Mr. Lincoln
had thought ; and he went away evidently as much abashed that
he dared be taller than the President of the United States as
that he had dared to venture into his presence.
Governor Hoyt tells an excellent story illustrating this inter-
est of Lincoln's in manly strength, and his involuntary compari-
son of himself with whoever showed it. It was in 1859, after
Lincoln had delivered a speech at the Wisconsin State Agricul-
tural Fair in Milwaukee. Governor Hoyt had asked him to make
the rounds of the exhibits, and they went into a tent to see a
"strong man " perform. He went through the ordinary exercises
with huge iron balls, tossing them in the air and catching them,
and rolling them on his arms and back ; and Mr. Lincoln, who
evidently had never before seen such a combination of agility
and strength, watched him with intense interest, ejaculating
under his breath now and then, "By George! By George!"
When the performance was over, Governor Hoyt, seeing Mr.
Lincoln's interest, asked him to go up and be introduced to the
athlete. He did so ; and, as he stood looking down musingly on
the man, who was very short, and evidently wondering that one
so much smaller than he could be so much stronger, he suddenly
broke out with one of his quaint speeches. "Why," he said,
" why, I could lick salt off the top of your hat."
His strength won him popularity, but his good-nature, his
wit, his skill in debate, his stories, were still more efficient in
gaining him good-will. People liked to have him around, and
voted him a good fellow to work with. Yet such were the con-
ditions of his life at this time that, in spite of his popularity,
nothing was open to him but hard manual labor. To take the
first job which he happened upon rail-splitting, ploughing,
lumbering, boating, store-keeping and make the most of it,
thankful if thereby he earned his bed and board and yearly suit
of jeans, was apparently all there was before Abraham Lincoln
in 1830, when he started out for himself.
LINCOLN, OFFUTT, AND GREEN ON THE FLATBOAT AT NEW SALEM.
From a painting in the State Capitol, Springfield, Illinois. This picture is crude and inaccurate.
The flatboat built by Lincoln, and by him piloted to New Orleans, was larger than the one here
portrayed, and the structure over the dam belittles the real mill. There was not only a grist-mill,
but also a saw-mill. The mill was built in 1829. March 5, 1830, we find John Overstreet averring
before the County Commissioners " that John Cameron and James Rutledge have erected a mill-dam
on the Sangamon River which obstructs the navigation of said river ; " and Cameron and Rutledge
are ordered to alter the dam so as to restore " safe navigation." James M. Rutledge of Petersburg,
a nephew of the mill-owner, helped build the mill, and says : "The mill was a frame structure, and
was solidly built. They used to grind corn mostly, though some flour was made. At times they
would run day and night. The saw-mill had an old-fashioned upright saw, and stood on the bank."
For a time this mill was operated by Denton Offutt, under the supervision of Lincoln. A few stakes,
a part of the old dam, still show at low water.
FIRST INDEPENDENT WORK. FIRST APPEARANCE IN SANGAMON
COUNTY. VISIT TO NEW ORLEANS IN 1831.
HROUGH the summer and fall of 1830 and the
early winter of 1831, Mr. Lincoln worked in
the vicinity of his father's new home, usually
as a farm-hand and rail-splitter. Most of his
work was done in company with John Hanks.
Before the end of the winter he secured em-
ployment of which he has given an account
himself, though in the third person :
" During that winter Abraham, together with
his step-mother's son, John D. Johnston, and John Hanks, yet
residing in Macon County, hired themselves to Denton Offutt to
104 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
take a flatboat from Beard stown, Illinois, to New Orleans, and
for that purpose were to join him (Offutt) at Springfield, Illinois,
so soon as the snow should go off. When it did go off, which
was about March 1, 1831, the country was so flooded as to make
travelling by land impracticable ; to obviate which difficulty they
purchased a large canoe and came down the Sangamon River in
it from where they were all living (near Decatur). This is the
time and manner of Abraham's first entrance into Sangamon
County. They found Offutt at Springfield, but learned from him
that he had failed in getting a boat at Beardstown. This led to
their hiring themselves to him for twelve dollars per month each,
and getting the timber out of the trees, and building a boat at
old Sangamon town, on the Sangamon River, seven miles north-
west of Springfield, which boat they took to New Orleans, sub-
stantially on the old contract."
Sangamon town, where Mr. Lincoln built the flatboat, has,
since his day, completely disappeared from the earth ; but then
it was one of the flourishing settlements on the river of that
name. Lincoln and his friends, on arriving there in March,
immediately began work. There is still living in Springfield,
Illinois, a man who helped Lincoln at the raft-building Mr.
John Roll, a well-known citizen, and one who has been promi-
nent in the material advancement of the city. Mr. Roll remem-
bers distinctly Lincoln's first appearance in Sangamon town.
"He was a tall, gaunt young man," he says, " dressed in a suit
of blue homespun jeans, consisting of a roundabout jacket,
waistcoat, and breeches which came to within about four inches
of his feet. The latter were encased in rawhide boots, into the
tops of which, most of the time, his pantaloons were stuffed. He
wore a soft felt hat which had at one time been black, but now,
as its owner dryly remarked, 'was sunburned until it was a
combine of colors.' '
Mr. Roll's relation to the new-comer soon became something
more than that of a critical observer ; he hired out to him, and
says with pride, "I made every pin which went into that boat."
LINCOLN'S POPULARITY IN SANGAMON.
It took some four weeks to build the raft, and in that period
Lincoln succeeded in captivating the entire village by his story-
telling. It was the custom in Sangamon for the " men -folks " to
LINCOLN BECOMES THE HERO OF THE SANGAMON. 105
THOMAS LINCOLN'S HOME IN ILLINOIS.
This cabin was built by Thomas Lincoln in 1831, on Goose Nest Prairie, in Coles County, Illinois,
where he had taken up forty acres of land. It was situated nine miles south of Charleston, on what is
called Lincoln's Lane. Here Thomas Lincoln died in 1861. The cabin was occupied until 1891, when it
was bought by the Lincoln Log Cabin Association to be shown at the World's Fair in 1893.
gather at noon and in the evening, when resting, in a convenient
lane near the mill. They had rolled out a long peeled log, on
which they lounged while they whittled and talked. Lincoln
had not been long in Sangamon before he joined this circle. At
once he became a favorite by his jokes and good-humor. As soon
as he appeared at the assembly ground the men would start him.
to story-telling. So irresistibly droll were his "yarns" that,
says Mr. Roll, "whenever he'd end up in his unexpected way the
boys on the log would whoop and roll off." The result of the
rolling off was to polish the log like a mirror. The men, recog-
nizing Lincoln's part in this polishing, christened their seat
" Abe's log." Long after Lincoln had disappeared from Sanga-
mon " Abe's log" remained, and until it had rotted away people
pointed it out, and repeated the droll stories of the stranger.
106 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
AN EXCITING ADVENTUEE.
The flatboat was done in about a month, and Lincoln and his
friends prepared to leave Sangamon. Before he started, how-
ever, he was the hero of an adventure so thrilling that he won
new laurels in the community. Mr. Roll, who was a witness
to the whole exciting scene, tells the story :
" It was the spring following the winter of the deep snow.*
Walter Carman, John Seamon, myself, and at times others of
the Carman boys had helped Abe in building the boat, and
when he had finished we went to work to make a dug-out, or
canoe, to be used as a small boat with the flat. We found a
suitable log about an eighth of a mile up the river, and with our
axes went to work under Lincoln's direction. The river was very
high, fairly 'booming.' After the dug-out was ready to launch
we took it to the edge of the water, and made ready to ' let her
go,' when Walter Carman and John Seamon jumped in as the
boat struck the water, each one anxious to be the first to get
a ride. As they shot out from the shore they found they were
unable to make any headway against the strong current. Car-
man had the paddle, and Seamon was in the stern of the boat.
Lincoln shouted to them to ' head up-stream,' and ' work back to
shore,' but they found themselves powerless against the stream.
At last they began to pull for the wreck of an old flatboat, the
first ever built on the Sangamou, which had sunk and gone to
pieces, leaving one of the stanchions sticking above the water.
Just as they reached it Seamon made a grab, and caught hold of
the stanchion, when the canoe capsized, leaving Seamon clinging
to the old timber, and throwing Carman into the stream. It
carried him down with the speed of a mill-race. Lincoln raised
his voice above the roar of the flood, and yelled to Carman to
swim for an elm tree which stood almost in the channel, which
the action of the high water changed.
"Carman, being a good swimmer, succeeded in catching a
branch, and pulled himself up out of the water, which was very
cold, and had almost chilled him to death ; and there he sat
shivering and chattering in the tree. Lincoln, seeing Carman
* 1830-1831. "The winter of the deep snow " is the date which is the starting
point in all calculations of time for the early settlers of Illinois, and the circumstance
from which the old settlers of Sauganlon County receive the name by which they are
generally known, " Snow-birds."
LINCOLN SAVES THESE COMPANIONS FROM DROWNING. 107
From a painting in the State Capitol, Springfield, Illinois. New Salem was founded by
James Rutledge and John Cameron in 1829. In that year they built a dam across the Sanga-
mon River, and erected a mill. Under date of October 23, 1829, Reuben Harrison, surveyor,
certifies that " at the request of John Cameron, one of the proprietors, I did survey the town
of New Salem." The town within two years contained a dozen or fifteen houses, nearly all
of them built of logs. New Salem's population probably never exceeded a hundred persons.
Its inhabitants, and those of the surrounding country, were mostly Southerners natives of
Kentucky and Tennessee though there was an occasional Yankee among them. Soon after
Lincoln left the place, in the spring of 1837, it began to decline. Petersburg had sprung up
two miles down the river, and rapidly absorbed its population and business. By 1840 New
Salem was almost deserted. The Rutledge tavern, the first house erected, was the last to
succumb. It stood for many years, but at last crumbled away. Salem hill is now only a
green cow pasture.
safe, called out to Seam on to let go the stanchion and swim for
the tree. With some hesitation he obeyed, and struck out,
while Lincoln cheered and directed him from the bank. As
Seamon neared the tree he made one grab for a branch, and,
missing it, went under the water. Another desperate lunge was
successful, and he climbed up beside Carman. Things were
pretty exciting now, for there were two men in the tree, and the
boat was gone.
" It was a cold, raw April day, and there was great danger of
the men becoming benumbed and falling back into the water.
Lincoln called out to them to keep their spirits up and he would
108 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
save them. The village had been alarmed by this time, and
many people had come down to the bank. Lincoln procured a
rope, and tied it to a log. He called all hands to come and help
roll the log into the water, and after this had been done, he, with
the assistance of several others, towed it some distance up the
stream. A daring young fellow by the name of ' Jim ' Dorrell
then took his seat on the end of the log, and it was pushed out
into the current, with the expectation that it would be carried
down stream against the tree where Seamon and Carman were.
"The log was well directed, and went straight to the tree ; but
Jim, in his impatience to help his friends, fell a victim to his
good intentions. Making a frantic grab at a branch, he raised
himself off the log, which was swept from under him by the rag-
ing water, and he soon joined the other two victims upon their
forlorn perch. The excitement on shore increased, and almost
the whole population of the village gathered on the river bank.
Lincoln had the log pulled up the stream, and, securing another
piece of rope, called to the men in the tree to catch it if they
could when he should reach the tree. He then straddled the log
himself, and gave the word to push out into the stream. When
he dashed into the tree, he threw the rope over the stump of a
broken limb, and let it play until he broke the speed of the log,
and gradually drew it back to the tree, holding it there until the
three now nearly frozen men had climbed down and seated them-
selves astride. He then gave orders to the people on the shore
to hold fast to the end of the rope which was tied to the log, and
leaving his rope in the tree he turned the log adrift. The
force of the current, acting against the taut rope, swung the log
around against the bank, and all ' on board ' were saved. The
excited people, who had watched the dangerous experiment with
alternate hope and fear, now broke into cheers for Abe Lincoln
and praises for his brave act. This adventure made quite a hero
of him along the Sangamon, and the people never tired of telling
of the exploit."
A SECOND ADVENTURE.
The flatboat built and loaded, the party started for New
Orleans about the middle of April. They had gone but a few
miles when they met with another adventure. At the village of
New Salem there was a mill-dam. On it the boat stuck, and here
for nearly twenty-four hours it hung, the bow in the air and the
HOW LINCOLN TOOK HIS FLATBOAT OVER A DAM. 109
THE NEW SALEM MILL TWENTY-FIVE YEARS AGO.
After a painting by Mrs. Bennett ; reproduced, by permission, from " Menard-Salem-Lincoln Souvenir
Album," Petersburg, Illinois, 1893. The Rutledge and Cameron mill, of which Lincoln at one time had
charge, stood on the same spot as the mill in the picture, and had the same foundation. From the map on
page 116 it will be seen that the mill was below the bluff and east of the town.
stern in the water, the cargo slowly setting backward shipwreck
almost certain. The village of New Salem turned out in a body
to see what the strangers would do in their predicament. They
shouted, suggested, and advised for a time, but finally discovered
that one big fellow in the crew was ignoring them and working
out a plan of relief. Having unloaded the cargo into a neighbor-
ing boat, Lincoln had succeeded in tilting his craft. Then, by
boring a hole in the end extending over the dam, the water was
let out. This done, the boat was easily shoved over and re-
loaded. The ingenuity which he had exercised in saving his
boat made a deep impression on the crowd on the bank, and it
was talked over for many a day. The proprietor of boat and
cargo was even more enthusiastic than the spectators, and
vowed he would build a steamboat for the Sangamon and make
A MATRON OF NEW SAiEM IN 1832.
This costume, worn by Mrs. Lucy M.
Bennett of Petersburg, Illinois, has been
a familiar attraction at old settlers'
gatherings in Menard County for years.
The dress was made by Mrs. Hill of
Jvew Salem ; and the reticule, or work-
bag, will be readily recognized by those
who have any recollection of the early
days. The bonnet occupied a place in
the store of Samuel Hill at New Salem.
It was taken from the store by Mrs.
Hill, worn for a time by her, and has
been carefully preserved to this day.
It is an imported bonnet a genuine
Leghorn and of a kind so costly that
Mr. Hill made only an occasional sale
of one. Its price, in fact, was twenty-
native American party.
dominating elements were added Germans,
French, Spanish, negroes, and Indians.
Lincoln the captain. Lincoln himself
was interested in what he had done,
and nearly twenty years later he em-
bodied his reflections on this adven-
ture in a carious invention for getting
boats over shoals.
NEW ORLEANS IN 1831.
The raft over the New Salem dam,
the party went on to New Orleans,
reaching there in May, 1831, and
remaining a month. It must have
been a month of intense intellectual
activity for Lincoln. Since his first
visit, made with young Gentry, New
Orleans had entered upon her "flush
times." Commerce was increasing at
a rate which dazzled speculators, and
drew them from all over the United
States. From 1830 to 1840 no other
American city increased in such a
ratio ; exrports and imports, which in
1831 amounted to $26,000,000, in 1835
had more than
tion had held
the sway so far
in the city ; but
now it came into
and often into
conflict, with a
tious, and fre-
s c r upulous
To these two pre-
A NEW SALEM BONNET.
LINCOLN'S EXPERIENCES IN NEW ORLEANS. Ill
THE SITE OF NEW SALEM AS IT APPEARS TO-DAY.
Cosmopolitan in its make-up, the city was even more cosmo-
politan in its life. Everything was to be seen in New Orleans
in those days, from the idle luxury of the wealthy Creole to
the organization of filibustering juntas. The pirates still plied
their trade in the Gulf, and the Mississippi River brought down
hundreds of river boatmen one of the wildest, wickedest sets
of men that ever existed in any city.
Lincoln and his companions ran their boat up beside thou-
sands of others. It was the custom to tie such craft along the
river front where St. Mary's Market now stands, and one could
walk a mile, it is said, over the tops of these boats without
: . 4 R* A trim
Ho donbt Ijncotn went, too, to lire in the boat-
's rendezvous,, called the "swamp." a wild, rough quarter,
where ronlette, whiskey, and the flint-lock pistol ruled.
All of the picturesque fife, the violent contrasts of the city,
he would ace as he wandered about ; and he would carry away
the shaip impressions which are produced when mind and heart
are alert, sincere; and healthy.
In this month spent in New Orleans TAwnnhi must hare seen
mnch of slavery . At that tune the city was full of slaves, and
the umber was constantly increasing ; indeed, one-third of the
crease in population between 1S30 and 1840 vas
One of the saddest features of the institution was
to be seen there in its moat aggravated form the slave market.
of the South, who looked on the
and who guarded their slaves with
care, knew little, it should be said, of this terrible
of slaves was humane, but in the open
of the city it was attended by shocking cruelty and
Xew Orleans for the first time the re-
ef men and women sold like animals. Mr. Hern-
tint he often heard Mr. Lincoln refer to this experi-
In 5ew Orleans for the first time," he writes. Lincoln
beheld the tree horrors of human slavery. He saw negroes in
chains whipped and scourged. 7 Against this inhumanity his
sense of nght and justice rebelled, and his mind and conscience
were awakened to a realbatioa of what he had often heard and
lend. Ho doabt. aa one of his companions has said. * slavery
ran the iron into him then and there.'
" One morning, in their rambles over the city, the trio passed
a slave anction. A iJBuauaa and eamely mulatto girl was Uaag
sold. She underwent a thorough examination at the hands of
II-:--. -1-7::!. "..-I '..-: z-r-l ..:.'. :.. I- i-r ": ' :T _:. I
the room like a horse, to show hoar she moved, and in
as the auctioneer said, that 'bidders might satisfy them-
* whether the article they were offering to bay was aoand
Ike aaiam thing was so molting that TJimiJa moved
away from the scene with a deep feeling of 'infiB*Hklt*i> ?
his compBuuoms foOow him. he said : -Boys, leffm get
away from this. If ever I get a chance to hit that thing " < memv
ingsBreryi. * TE hk it hard.' "
Tfci ii i it a^ iif
! MfcWi iMrifc ill
NEW SALEM AS LINCOLN FIRST KNEW IT. 115
Mr. Herndon gives John Hanks as his authority for this state-
ment. This is plainly an error ; for, according to Mr. Lincoln
himself, Hanks did not go on to New Orleans, but, having a
family, and finding that he was likely to be detained from home
longer than he had expected, he turned back at St. Louis.
Though there is reason for believing that Lincoln was deeply
impressed on this trip by something he saw in a New Orleans
slave market, and that he often referred to it, the story told
above probably grew to its present proportions by much telling.
LINCOLN SETTLES IN NEW SALEM. HE BECOMES A GROCERY
CLERK. HIS POPULARITY IN NEW SALEM.
HE month in New Orleans passed swiftly, and in
June, 1831, Lincoln and his companions took
passage up the river. He did not return, how-
ever, in the usual way of the river boatman " out
of a job." According to his own way of put-
ting it, "during this boat-enterprise acquaint-
ance with Offutt, who was previously an entire
stranger, he conceived a liking for Abraham,
and believing he could turn him to account, he
contracted with him to act as a clerk for him on his return from
New Orleans,. in charge of a store and mill at New Salem." The
store and mill were, however, so far only in Offutt' s imagination,
and Lincoln had to drift about until his employer was ready for
him. He made a short visit to his father and mother, now in
Coles County, near Charleston (fever and ague had driven the
Lincolns from their first home in Macon County), and then, in
July, 1831, he went to New Salem, where, as he says, he " stopped
indefinitely, and for the first time, as it were, by himself."
The village of New Salem, the scene of Lincoln's mercantile
career, was one of the many little towns which, in the pioneer
days, sprang up along the Sangamon River, a stream then looked
upon as navigable and as destined to be counted among the high-
ways of commerce. Twenty miles northwest of Springfield,
strung along the left bank of the Sangamon, parted by hollows
and ravines, is a row of high hills. On one of these a long,
U ' CAM CRON
MAP OF NEW SALEM. MADE ESPECIALLY FOR THIS WORK.
Map drawn by J. McCan Davis, aided by surviving inhabitants of New Saleni. Dr. John Allen was the
leading physician of New Salem. He was a Yankee, and was at first looked upon with suspicion, but he
was soon conducting a Sunday-school and temperance society, though strongly opposed by the conserva-
tive church people. Dr. Allen attended Ann Rutledge in her last illness. He was thrifty, and, moving to
Petersburg in 1840, became wealthy. He died in 1860. Dr. Francis Regnier was a rival physician and a
respected citizen. Samuel Hill and John McNeill (whose real name subsequently proved to be McNamar)
operated a general store next to Berry and Lincoln's grocery. Mr. Hill also owned the carding-machine. He
moved his store to Petersburg in 1839, and engaged in business there, dying quite wealthy. Jack Kelso
followed a variety of callings, being occasionally a school-teacher, now and then a grocery clerk, and
always a fisher and hunter. He was a man of some culture, and when warmed by liquor, quoted Shakes-
peare and Burns profusely, a habit which won for him the close friendship of Lincoln. Joshua Miller was
a blacksmith, and lived in the same house with Kelso a double house. He is said to be still living, some-
where in Nebraska. Miller and Kelso were brothers-in-law. Philemon Morris was a tinner. Henry
Onstott was a cooper by trade. He was an elder in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and meetings
were often held at his house. Rev. John Berry, father of Lincoln's partner, frequently preached there.
Robert Johnson was a wheelwright, and his wife took in weaving. Martin Waddell was a hatter. He
was the best-natured man in town, Lincoln possibly exceptcd. The Trent brothers, who succeeded Berry
and Lincoln as proprietors of the store, worked in his shop for a time. William Clary, one of the first
settlers of New Salem, was one of a numerous family, most of whom lived in the vicinity of "Clary's
Grove." Isaac Burner was the father of Daniel Green Burner, Berry and Lincoln's clerk. Alexander
Ferguson worked at odd jobs. He had two brothers, John and Elijah. Isaac Gollaher lived in a house
belonging to John Ferguson. "Row" Herndon, at whose house Lincoln boarded for a year or more
after going to New Salem, moved to the country after selling his store to Berry and Lincoln. John Cameron,
one of the founders of the town, was a Presbyterian preacher and a highly esteemed citizen.
LINCOLN'S FIRST EMPLOYMENT IN NEW SALEM. 117
narrow ridge, beginning with a
sharp and sloping point near the
river, running south, and paral-
lel with the stream a little way,
and then, reaching its highest
point, making a sudden turn to
the west, and gradually widen-
ing until lost in the prairie stood
this frontier village. The crook-
ed river for a short distance
conies from the east, and, seem-
ingly surprised at meeting the
bluff, abruptly changes its course,
and flows to the north. Across
the river the bottom stretches out
half a mile back to the highlands.
New Salem, founded in 1829 by
James Eutledge and John Cam-
eron, and a dozen years later a
deserted village, is rescued from
oblivion only by the fact that
Lincoln was once one of its inhabi-
tants. His first sight of the town
had been in April, 1831, when
he and his crew had been de-
tained in getting their flatboat
over the Rutledge and Cameron
mill-dam. When Lincoln walked
into New Salem, three months
later, he was not altogether a
stranger, for the people remem-
bered him as the ingenious flat-
boatman who had freed his boat
from water (and thus enabled it to get over the dam) by resort-
ing to the miraculous expedient of boring a hole in the bottom.
Offutt's goods had not arrived when Mr. Lincoln reached New
Salem; and he "loafed" about, so those who remember his
arrival say, good-naturedly taking a hand in whatever he could
find to do, and in his droll way making friends of everybody.
By chance, a bit of work fell to him almost at once, which intro-
duced him generally and gave him an opportunity to make a
WILLIAM G. GREENE.
William G. Greene was one of the earliest
friends of Lincoln at New Salem. He stood on
the bank of the Sangamon River on the 19th of
April, 1831, and watched Lincoln hore a hole in
the bottom of the flatboat which had lodged on
the mill-dam, so that the water might ran out.
A few months later he and Lincoln were both
employed by the enterprising Denton Offutt
as clerks in. the store and managers of the mill
which had been leased by Offutt. It was Will-
iam G. Greene who, returning home from col-
lege at Jacksonville on a vacation, brought
Richard Yates with him, and introduced him to
Lincoln, the latter being found stretched out on
the cellar door of Bowling Green's cabin, read-
ing a book. Mr. Greene was born in Tennessee
in 1812, and went to Illinois in 1823. After the
disappearance of New Salem he removed to
Tallula, a few miles away, where in after years
he engaged in the banking business. He died
in 1894, after amassing a fortune.
name in the neighborhood. It was election day. The village
school-master, Mentor Graham by name, was clerk, but the
assistant was ill. Looking about for some one to help him, Mr.
Graham saw a tall stranger loitering around the polling-place,
and called to him, " Can you write ? " " Yes," said the stranger,
" I can make a few rabbit tracks." Mr. Graham evidently was
satisfied with the answer, for he promptly initiated him ; and he
filled his place not only to the satisfaction of his employer, but
also to the delectation of the loiterers about the polls, for when-
ever things dragged he immediately began " to spin out a stock
of Indiana yarns." So droll were they that years afterward
men who listened to Lincoln that day repeated them to their
friends. He had made a hit in New Salem, to start with, and
here, as in Sangamon town, it was by means of his story- tell ing.
His next work was to pilot down the Sangamon and Illinois
rivers, as far as Beardstown, a fiatboat bearing the family and
goods of a pioneer bound for Texas. At Beardstown he found
Offutt's goods, waiting to be taken to New Salem. As he footed
his way home he met two men with a wagon and ox-team going
for the goods. Off utt had expected Lincoln to wait at Beards-
town until the ox-team arrived, and the teamsters, not having
any credentials, asked Lincoln to give them an order for the
goods. This, sitting down by the roadside, he wrote out ; and
one of the men used to relate that it contained a misspelled word,
which he corrected.
IN CHAEGE OF DEN-
The precise date
of the opening of
Denton Offutt's store
is not known. We
only know that on
July 8, 1831, the
ers' Court of Sanga-
mon County granted
Offutt a license to
retail merchandise at
A NEW SALEM SPINNING-WHEEL.
THE FRONTIER STORE IN LINCOLN'S DAY.
A NEW SALEM INTERIOR, SHOWING GENUINE NEW SALEM COSTUMES AND FURNITURE STILL EXTANT.
Reproduced by permission from " Menard-Salem-Lincoln Souvenir Album," Petersburg, Illinois, 1893.
New Salem, for which he paid five dollars, a fee which supposed
him to have one thousand dollars' worth of goods in stock.
When the oxen and their drivers returned with the goods, the
store was opened in a little log house on the brink of the hill,
almost over the river.
The frontier store filled a unique place. Usually it was a
"general store," and on its shelves were found most of the arti-
cles needed in a community of pioneers. But to be a place for
the sale of dry goods and groceries was not its only function ; it
was a kind of intellectual and social centre. It was the common
meeting-place of the farmers, the happy refuge of the village
loungers. No subject was unknown there. The habitues of the
place were equally at home in discussing politics, religion, or
sports. Stories were told, jokes were cracked and laughed at, and
the news contained in the latest newspaper finding its way into
120 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
the wilderness was repeated again and again. Such a store was
that of Denton Offutt. Lincoln conld hardly have chosen sur-
roundings more favorable to the highest development of the art
of story-telling, and he had not been there long before his repu-
tation for drollery was established.
THE CLARY'S GROVE BOYS.
But he gained popularity and respect in other ways. There
was near the village a settlement called Clary's Grove. The
most conspicuous part of the population was an organization
known as the " Clary's Grove Boys." They exercised a veritable
terror over the neighborhood, and yet they were not a vicious
band. Mr. Herndon, who had a cousin living in New Salem at
the time, and who knew personally many of the "boys," says :
"They were friendly and good-natured ; they could trench a
pond, dig a bog, build a house ; they could pray and fight, make
a village or create a State. They would do almost anything for
sport or fun, love or necessity. Though rude and rough ; though
life's forces ran over the edge of the bowl, foaming and spark-
ling in pure deviltry for deviltry' s sake, yet place before them a
poor man who needed their aid, a lame or sick man, a defence-
less woman, a widow, or an orphaned child, they melted into
sympathy and charity at once. They gave all they had, and
willingly toiled or played cards for more. Though there never
was under the sun a more generous parcel of rowdies, a stran-
ger s introduction was likely to be the most unpleasant part of
his acquaintance with them."
Denton Offutt. Lincoln's employer, was just the man to love
to boast before such a crowd. He seemed to feel that Lincoln's
physical prowess shed glory on himself, and he declared the
country over that his clerk could lift more, throw farther, run
faster, jump higher, and wrestle better than any man in Sanga-
mon County. The Clary's Grove Boys, of course, felt in honor
bound to prove this false, and they appointed their best man,
one Jack Armstrong, to "throw Abe." Jack Armstrong was,
according to the testimony of all who remember him, a "power-
ful twister," "square built and strong as an ox,*' "the best-
made man that ever lived;" and everybody knew the contest
would be close. Lincoln did not like to " tussle and scuffle ; " he
objected to "woolling and pulling;" but Offutt had gone so
LINCOLN CONQUERS CLARY'S GROVE.
VIEW FROM THE TOP OF NEW SALEM HILL.
far that it became necessary to yield. The match was held on
the ground near the grocery. Clary's Grove and New Salem
turned out generally to witness the bout, and betting on the
result ran high, the community as a whole staking their jack-
knives, tobacco-plugs, and "treats" on Armstrong. The two
men had scarcely taken hold of each other before it was evident
that the Clary's Grove champion had met a match. The two
men wrestled long and hard, but both kept their feet. Neither
could throw the other, and Armstrong, convinced of this, tried a
"foul." Lincoln no sooner realized the game of his antagonist
than, furious with indignation, he caught him by the throat and,
holding him out at arm's length, "shook him like a child."
Armstrong s friends rushed
to his aid. and for a moment
it looked as if Lincoln
would be routed by sheer
force of numbers. But he
held his own so bravely
that the "boys,"* in spite
of their sympathies, were
filled with admiration.
What bade fair to be a gen-
eral fight ended in a general
hand-shake, even Jack
Armstrong declaring that
Lincoln was the "best fel-
low who ever broke into
the camp." From that
day. at the cock-fights and
horse-races, which were
their common sports, he
became the chosen umpire ;
and when the entertain-
ment broke up in a row
a not uncommon occurrence
he acted the peacemaker
without suffering the
peacemakers usual fate.
Such was his reputation
with the Clary's Grove
Boys." after three months
in Xew Salem, that when
the fall muster came off he
was elected captain.
Lincoln showed soon
that if he was unwilling
to indulge in " woolling and
pulling" for amusement,
he did not object to it in a case of honor. A man came into the
store one day when women were present, and used profane lan-
guage. Lincoln asked him to stop; but the man persisted,
swearing that nobody should prevent his saying what he wanted
to. The women gone, the man began to abuse Lincoln so hotly
X- - -:-:.-..
~: : . -
-- '.- - .
fivedoa his 1
~ -. - :----.
-' :.. -
'. .: -
I am -
oie. Laser he won u>
- -. . . r.f.r - -_--
LINCOLN LIKED FOR HIS COURAGE AND HONESTY. 123
that the latter finally said,
' ' Well, if you must be whipped,
I suppose I might as well whip
you as any other man ; " and
going outdoors with the fellow,
he threw him on the ground,
and rubbed smart-weed in his
eyes until he bellowed for
mercy. New Salem' s sense of
chivalry was touched, and
enthusiasm over Lincoln in-
His honesty excited no less
admiration. Two incidents
seem to have particularly im-
A NEW SALEM CHAIR.
This chair is now in the collection of Mr. Louis
Vanuxem of Philadelphia. It was originally owned
by Caleb Carmen of New Salem, and was once re-
paired by Abraham Lincoln.
MODEL OP FIRST PLOUGH MADE IN MENARD
Reproduced by permission from " Menard-Sa-
lem-Lincoln Souvenir Album," Petersburg, Dli-
pressed the community. Hav-
ing discovered on one occasion
that he had taken six and a
quarter cents too much from a
customer, he w a 1 k e d three
miles that evening, after his
store was closed, to return the
money. Again, he weighed
out a half-pound of tea, as he
supposed. It was night, and
this was the last thing he did
before closing up. On enter-
ing in the morning he dis-
covered a four-ounce weight on
the scales. He saw his mis-
take, and, closing up shop,
hurried off to deliver the re-
mainder of the tea. This un-
usual regard for the rights of
others soon w r on him the title
of "Honest Abe."
124 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
LINCOLN STUDIES GRAMMAR.
As soon as the store was fairly under way, Lincoln began to
look about for books. Since leaving Indiana, in March, 1830,
he had had, in his drifting life, little leisure or opportunity for
study, though he had had a great deal for observation. Never-
theless his desire to learn had increased, and his ambition to be
somebody had been encouraged. In that time he had found
that he really was superior to many of those who were called the
' ' great ' ' men of the country. Soon after entering Macon County,
in March, 1830, when he was only twenty-one years old, he had
found he could make a better speech than at least one man who
was before the public. A candidate had come along where John
Hanks and he were at work, and, as John Hanks tells the story,
the man made a speech. " It was a bad one, and I said Abe
could beat it. I turned down a box, and Abe made his speech.
The other man was a candidate, Abe wasn't. Abe beat him to
death, his subject being the navigation of the Sangamon River.
The man, after Abe's speech was through, took him aside, and
asked him where he had learned so much and how he could do
so well. Abe replied, stating his manner and method of reading,
what he had read. The man encouraged him to persevere."
He had found that people listened to him, that they quoted
his opinions, and that his friends were already saying that he
was able to fill any position. Offutt even declared the country
over that " Abe" knew more than any man in the United States,
and that some day he would be President.
Under this stimulus Lincoln's ambition increased. "I have
talked with great men," he told his fellow-clerk and friend
Greene, "and I do not see how they differ from others." He
made up his mind to put himself before the public, and talked
of his plans to his friends. In order to keep in practice in speak-
ing he walked seven or eight miles to debating clubs. " Practis-
ing polemics" was what he caDed the exercise. He seems now
for the first time to have begun to study subjects. Grammar
was what he chose. He sought Mentor Graham, the school-
master, and asked his advice. "If you are going before the
public," Mr. Graham told him, "you ought to do it." But
where could he get a grammar ? There was but one, said Mr.
Graham, in the neighborhood, and that was six miles away.
Without waiting for further information, the young man rose from
LINCOLN MASTERS GRAMMAR AND ENTERS POLITICS. 125
the breakfast- table, walked immediately to the place, and bor-
rowed this rare copy of Kirkham's Grammar. From that time
on for weeks he gave his leisure to mastering its contents. Fre-
quently he asked his friend Greene to hold the book while he
recited, and when puzzled he would consult Mr. Graham.
Lincoln's eagerness to learn was such that the whole neigh-
borhood became interested. The Greenes lent him books, the
school-master kept him in mind and helped him as he could, and
the village cooper let him come into his shop and keep up a fire
of shavings sufficiently bright to read by at night. It was not
long before the grammar was mastered. "Well," Lincoln said
to his fellow-clerk Greene, "if that's what they call a science, I
think I'll go at another."
Before the winter was ended he had become the most popular
man in New Salem. Although he was but twenty-two years of
age in February, 1832 ; had never been at school an entire year ;
had never made a speech, except in debating clubs or by the
roadside ; had read only the books he could pick up, and known
only the men of the poor, out-of-the-way towns in which he had
lived, yet, "encouraged by his great popularity among his im-
mediate neighbors," as he says, he announced himself, in March,
1832, as a candidate for the General Assembly of the State.
LINCOLN'S FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT TO THE VOTERS OF SANGAMON
COUNTY. HIS VIEWS ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE SANGAMON.
THE MODESTY OF HIS CIRCULAR.
HE only preliminary expected of a candidate for
the legislature of Illinois at that date was an
announcement stating his ' ' sentiments with re-
gard to local affairs." The circular in which
Lincoln complied with this custom was a docu-
ment of about two thousand words, in which he
plunged at once into the subject he believed
most interesting to his constituents "the pub-
lic utility of internal improvements."
At that time the State of Illinois as, indeed, the whole
United States was convinced that the future of the country
LINCOLN'S FIRST VOTE.-PHOTOGP APHED FROM THE ORIGINAL POLL-BOOK. AND NOW FIRST PUBLISHED.
6EE NOTE ON NEXT PAGE.
LINCOLN'S PLAN FOR IMPROVING SANGAMON RIVER. 127
depended on the opening of canals and railroads, and the clear-
ing out of the rivers. In the Sangamon country the population
felt that a quick way of getting to Beardstown on the Illinois
River, to which point the steamer came from the Mississippi,
was, as Lincoln puts it in his circular, using a phrase of his hero
Clay, " indispensably necessary." Of course a railroad was the
dream of the settlers ; but when it was considered seriously there
was always, as Lincoln says, "a heart-appalling shock accom-
panying the amount of its cost, which forces us to shrink from
our pleasing anticipations."
' ' The probable cost of this contemplated railroad is estimated at two hun-
dred and ninety thousand dollars; the bare statement of which, in my opinion,
is sufficient to justify the belief that the improvement of the Sangamon River
is an object much better suited to our infant resources.
' ' Respecting this view, I think I may say, without the fear of being con-
tradicted, that its navigation may be rendered completely practicable as high
as the mouth of the South Fork, or probably higher, to vessels of from twenty-
five to thirty tons burden, for at least one-half of all common years, and to
vessels of much greater burden a part of the time. From my peculiar circum-
stances, it is probable that for the last twelve months I have given as particular
attention to the stage of the water in this river as any other person in the coun-
try. In the month of March, 1831, in company with others, I commenced the
building of a flatboat on the Sangamon, and finished and took her out in the
course of the spring. Since that time I have been concerned in the mill at New
Salem. These circumstances are sufficient evidence that I have not been very
inattentive to the stages of the water. The time at which we crossed the mill-
dam being in the last days of April, the water was lower than it had been since
Note : LINCOLN'S FIRST VOTE. The original poll-book from which the vote as shown on page 126 is re-
produced, is now on file in the County Clerk's office, Springfield, Illinois. Lincoln's first vote was cast at New
Salem, " in the Clary's Grove precinct," August 1, 1831. At this election he aided Mr. Graham, who was one
of the clerks. In the early days in Illinois, elections were conducted by the viva voce method. The people
did try voting by ballot, but the experiment was unpopular. It required too much " book larnin," and in
1839 the viva voce method of voting was restored. The judges and clerks sat at a table with the poll-book
before them. The voter walked up, and announced the candidate of his choice, and it was recorded in his
presence. There was no ticket peddling, and ballot-box stufling was impossible. To this simple system
we are indebted for the record of Lincoln's first vote. As will be seen from the fac-simile, Lincoln voted for
James Turney for Congressman, Bowling Green and Edmund Greer for Magistrates, and John Armstrong
and Henry Sinco for Constables. Of these five men three were elected. Turney was defeated for Congress-
man by Joseph Duncan. Turney lived in Greene County. He was not then a conspicuous figure in the
politics of the State, but was a follower of Henry Clay, and was well thought of in his own district. He
and Lincoln, in 1834, served their first terms together in the lower house of the legislature, and later he was
a State senator. Joseph Duncan, the successful candidate, was already in Congress. He was a politician
of influence. In 1834 he was a strong Jackson man ; but after his election as Governor he created con-
sternation among the followers of " Old Hickory " by becoming a Whig. Sidney Breese, who received only
two votes in the Clary's Grove precinct, afterward became the most conspicuous of the five candidates.
Eleven years later he defeated Stephen A. Douglas for the United States Senate, and for twenty-five years he
was on the bench of the Supreme Court of Illinois, serving under each of the three constitutions. For the
office of Magistrate, Bowling Green was elected, but Greer was beaten. Both of Lincoln's candidates for
Constable were elected. John Armstrong was the man with whom, a short time afterward, Lincoln had
the celebrated wrestling match. Henry Sinco was the keeper of a store at New Salem. Lincoln's first
vote for President was not cast until the next year (November 5, 1832), when he voted for Henry Clay.
128 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
the breaking of winter, in February, or than it was for several weeks after.
The principal difficulties we encountered in descending the river were from the
drifted timber, which obstructions all know are not difficult to be removed.
Knowing almost precisely the height of water at that time, I believe I am safe
in saying that it has as often been higher as lower since.
"From this view of the subject, it appears that my calculations with
regard to the navigation of the Sangamon cannot but be founded in reason ;
but, whatever may be its natural advantages, certain it is that it never can be
practically useful to any great extent without being greatly improved by art.
The drifted timber, as I have before mentioned, is the most formidable barrier
to this object. Of all parts of this river, none will require as much labor in
proportion to make it navigable as the last thirty or thirty-five miles ; and
going with the meanderings of the channel, when we are this distance above
its mouth, we are only between twelve and eighteen miles from Beardstown in
something near a straight direction, and this route is upon such low ground as
to retain water in many places during the season, and in all parts such as to
draw two-thirds or three-fourths of the river water at all high stages.
" This route is on prairie-land the whole distance, so that it appears to me,
by removing the turf a sufficient width, and damming up the old channel, the
whole river in a short time would wash its way through, thereby curtailing the
distance and increasing the velocity of the current very considerably, while
there would be no timber on the banks to obstruct its navigation in future ;
and being nearly straight, the timber which might float in at the head would
be apt to go clear through. There are also many places above this where the
river, in its zigzag course, forms such complete peninsulas as to be easier to cut
at the necks than to remove the obstructions from the bends, which, if done,
would also lessen the distance.
'' What the cost of this work would be, I am unable to say. It is probable,
however, that it would not be greater than is common to streams of the same
length. Finally, I believe the improvement of the Sangamon River to be
vastly important and highly desirable to the people of the country ; and, if
elected, any measure in the legislature having this for its object, which may
appear judicious, will meet my approbation and receive my support."
Lincoln could not have advocated a measure more popular.
At that moment the whole population of Sangamon was in a
state of wild expectation. Some six weeks before Lincoln's
circular appeared, a citizen of Springfield had advertised that as
soon as the ice went oif the river he would bring up a steamer,
the "Talisman," from Cincinnati, and prove the Sangamon
navigable. The announcement had aroused the entire country,
speeches were made, and subscriptions taken. The merchants
announced goods direct per steamship "Talisman" the country
over, and every village from Beardstown to Springfield was laid
off in town lots. When the circular appeared the excitement
was at its height.
LINCOLN'S EARLY VIEWS ON USURY AND EDUCATION. 129
Lincoln's comments in his circular on two other subjects on
which all candidates of the day expressed themselves, are amus-
ing in their simplicity. The practice of loaning money at exor-
bitant rates was then a great evil in the West. Lincoln proposed
that the limits of usury be fixed, and he closed his paragraph on
the subject with these words, which sound strange enough from
a man who in later life showed so profound a reverence for law :
"In cases of extreme necessity, there could always be means found to
cheat the law ; while in all other cases it would have its intended effect. I
would favor the passage of a law on this subject which might not be very easily
evaded. Let it be such that the labor and difficulty of evading it could only be
justified in cases of greatest necessity."
A general revision of the laws of the State was the second topic
which he felt required a word. "Considering the great proba-
bility," he said, " that the framers of those laws were wiser than
myself, I should prefer not meddling with them, unless they
were attacked by others ; in which case I should feel it both a
privilege and a duty to take that stand which, in my view, might
tend most to the advancement of justice."
Of course he said a word for education :
"Upon the subject of education, not presuming to dictate any plan or
system respecting it, can only say that I view it as the most important subject
which we as a people can be engaged in. That every man may receive at least
a moderate education, and thereby be enabled to read the histories of his own
and other countries, by which he may duly appreciate the value of our free
institutions, appears to be an object of vital importance, even on this account
alone ; to say nothing of the advantages and satisfaction to be derived from
all being able to read the Scriptures and other works, both of a religious and
moral nature, for themselves.
" For my part, I desire to see the time when education and by its means
morality, sobriety, enterprise, and industry shall become much more general
than at present, and should be gratified to have it in my power to contribute
something to the advancement of any measure which might have a tendency
to accelerate that happy period."
The audacity of a young man in his position presenting him-
self as a candidate for the legislature is fully equalled by the
humility of the closing paragraphs of his announcement :
"But, fellow-citizens, I shall conclude. Considering the great degree of
modesty which should always attend youth, it is probable I have already been
more presuming than becomes me. However, upon the subjects of which I
have treated, I have spoken as I have thought. I may be wrong in regard to
any or all of them ; but, holding it a sound maxim that it is better only some-
LINCOLN IN 1860.
From an ambrotype in the possession of Mr. Marcus L. Ward of Newark, New Jersey.
This portrait of Mr. Lincoln was made in Springfield, Illinois, on May 20, 1860, for the late
Hon. Marcus L. Ward, Governor of New Jersey. Mr. Ward had gone to Springfield to
see Mr. Lincoln, and while there asked him for his picture. The President-elect replied
that he had no picture which was satisfactory, but would gladly sit for one. The two
gentlemen went out immediately, and in Mr. Ward's presence Mr. Lincoln had the above
LINCOLN'S MODESTY AS A CANDIDATE.
ABOVE THE DAM AT NEW SALEM.
Reproduced, by permission, from " Menard-Salem-Lincoln Souvenir Album," Petersburg, Illinois, 1893.
times to be right than at all times to be wrong, so soon as I discover my opin-
ions to be erroneous, I shall be ready to renounce them.
" Every man is said to have his peculiar ambition. Whether it be true or
not, I can say, for one, that I have no other so great as that of being truly
esteemed of my fellow-men by rendering myself worthy of their esteem. How
far I shall succeed in gratifying this ambition is yet to be developed. I am
young, and unknown to many of you. I was born, and have ever remained,
in the most humble walks of life. I have no wealthy or popular relations or
friends to recommend me. My case is thrown exclusively upon the indepen-
dent voters of the county ; and, if elected, they will have conferred a favor
upon me for which I shall be unremitting in my labors to compensate. But,
if the good people in. their wisdom shall see fit to keep me in the background,
I have been too familiar with disappointments to be very much chagrined."
Very soon after Lincoln had distributed his handbills, enthu-
siasm on the subject of the opening of the Sangamon rose to a
fever. The "Talisman" actually came up the river ; scores of
men went to Beardstown to meet her, among them Lincoln, of
TUB KIKKIIAM'S <;K.I
NEW SALEM. NOW FIRST PUBLISHED.
From a photograph made especially for this work. The copy of Kirkham's Grammar studied by
Lincoln belonged to a man named Vaner. Some of the biographers say Lincoln borrowed it ; but it
appears that he became the owner of the book, either by purchase or through the generosity of Vaner,
for it was never returned to the latter. It is said that Lincoln learned this grammar practically by
heart. "Sometimes," says Herndon, "he would stretch out at full length on the counter, his head
propped np on a stack of calico prints, studying it ; or he would steal away to the shade of some inviting
tree, and there spend hours at a time in a determined effort to fix hi his mind the arbitrary rule that
' adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.' " He presented the book to Ann Rutledge, and it
has since been one of the treasures of the Rutledge family. After the death of Ann it was studied by her
brother Robert, and is now owned by his widow, who resides at Casselton, North Dakota. The title page of
the book appears above. The words, " Ann M. Rutledge is now learning grammar," were written by Lin-
coln. The order on James Rutledge to pay David P. Nelson thirty dollars, and signed " A. Lincoln for D.
Offutt," which is shown above, was pasted upon the front cover of the book by Robert Rutledge.
course ; and to him was given the honor of piloting her an honor
which made him remembered by many a man who saw him that
day for the first time. The trip was made with all the wild
LINCOLN PILOTS A STEAMBOAT UP THE SANGAMON. 133
demonstrations which always attended the first steamboat. On
either bank a long procession of men and boys on foot or horse
accompanied the boat. Cannons and volleys of musketry were
fired as settlements were passed. At every stop speeches were
made, congratulations offered, toasts drunk, flowers presented.
It was one long hurrah from Beardstown to Springfield, and
foremost in the jubilation was Lincoln the pilot. The "Talis-
man " went to the point on the river nearest to Springfield, and
there tied up for a week. When she went back, Lincoln again
had a conspicuous position as pilot. The notoriety this gave
him was probably quite as valuable politically as the forty
dollars he received for his service was financially.
While the country had been dreaming of wealth through the
opening of the Sangamon, and Lincoln had been doing his best
to prove that the dream was possible, the store in which he
clerked was "petering out" to use his own expression. The
owner, Dent on Offutt, had proved more ambitious than wise, and
Lincoln saw that an early closing by the sheriff was probable.
But before the store was fairly closed, and while the trip of the
"Talisman" was yet exciting the country, an event occurred
which interrupted all of Lincoln's plans.
A NEW SALEM CENTRE TABLE.
This table is now owned by W. C. Green of Talula,
Illinois. Originally it was part of the furniture of the
cabin of Bowling Green, near New Salem.
A CLARY'S GROVE LOG CABIN. NOW FIKST PUBLISHED.
From a water-color by Miss Etta Ackermann, Springfield, Illinois. " Clary's Grove " was the name of a
settlement five miles southwest of New Salem, deriving its name from a grove on the land of the Clarys.
It was the headquarters of a daring and reckless set of young men living in the neighborhood and known
as the " Clary's Grove Boys." This cabin was the residence of George Davis, one of the " Clary's Grove
Boys," and grandfather of Miss Ackermann. It was built in 1824, seventy-one years ago, and is the only
one left of the cluster of cabins which constituted the little community.
OUTBREAK OF SACS AND FOXES. LINCOLN VOLUNTEERS AND IS
MADE A CAPTAIN. INCIDENTS OF HIS SERVICE AS CAPTAIN.
NE morning in April a messenger from the gov-
ernor of the State rode into New Salem, scatter-
ing circulars. These circulars contained an ad-
dress from Governor Reynolds to the militia of
the northwest section of the State, announcing
that the British band of Sacs and other hostile
Indians, headed by Black Hawk, had invaded
the Rock River country, to the great terror of
the frontier inhabitants ; and calling upon the
citizens who were willing to aid in repelling them, to rendezvous
at Beardstown within a week.
THE INVASION OF BLACK HAWK'S LANDS.
The name of Black Hawk
was familiar to the people
of Illinois. He was an old
enemy of the settlers, and
had been a tried friend of
the British. The land his
people had once owned in
the northwest of the present
State of Illinois had been
sold in 1804 to the govern-
ment of the United States,
but with the provision that
the Indians should hunt
and raise corn there until it
was surveyed and sold to
settlers. Long before the
land was surveyed, how-
ever, squatters had invaded
the country, and tried to
force the Indians west of
the Mississippi. Particu-
larly envious were these
whites of the lands at the
mouth of the Rock River,
where the ancient village
and burial place of the Sacs
stood, and where they came each year to raise corn. Black
Hawk had resisted their encroachments, and many violent acts
had been committed on both sides.
Finally, however, the squatters, in spite of the fact that the
line of settlement was still fifty miles away, succeeded in evad-
ing the real meaning of the treaty and in securing a survey of
the desired land at the mouth of the river. Black Hawk, exas-
perated and broken-hearted at seeing his village violated, per-
suaded himself that the village had never been sold indeed,
that land could not be sold.
"My reason teaches me," he wrote, "that land cannot be sold. The Great
Spirit gave it to his children to live upon, and cultivate, as far as is necessary
for their subsistence ; and so long as they occupy and cultivate it they have the
right to the soil, but if they voluntarily leave it, then any other people have
a right to settle upon it. Nothing can be sold but such things as can be carried
Nancy Green was the wife of "Squire" Bowling
Green. Her maiden name was Nancy Potter. She was
born in North Carolina in 1797, and married Bowling
Green in 1818. She removed with him to New Salem in
1820, and lived in that vicinity until her death, in 1864.
Lincoln was a constant visitor in Nancy Green's home.
Supported by this theory,
conscious that in some way he
did not understand he had been
wronged, and urged on by
White Cloud, the prophet, who
ruled a Winnebago village on
the Rock River, Black Hawk
crossed the Mississippi in 1831,
determined to evict the settlers.
A military demonstration drove
him back, and he was persuaded
to sign a treaty never to return
east of the Mississippi. "I
touched the goose-quill to the
treaty and was determined to
live in peace," he wrote after-
ward ; but hardly had he
"touched the goose-quill" be-
fore his heart smote him.
Longing for his home, resent-
ment at the whites, obstinacy,
brooding over the bad counsels
of White Cloud and his disciple Neapope an agitating Indian
who had recently been East to visit the British and their Indian
allies, and who assured Black Hawk that the Winnebagoes,
Ottawas, Chippewas, and Pottawottomies would join him in a
struggle for his land, and that the British would send him
" guns, ammunition, provisions, and clothing early in the spring"
all persuaded the Hawk that he would be successful if he made
an effort to drive out the whites. In spite of the advice of many
of his friends and of the Indian agent in the country, he crossed
the river on April 6, 1832, and with some five hundred braves,
his squaws and children, marched to the Prophet's town, thirty-
five miles up the Rock River.
As soon as they heard of Black Hawk's invasion, the settlers
of the northwestern part of the State fled in a panic to the forts ;
and they rained petitions for protection on Governor Reynolds.
General Atkinson, who was at Fort Armstrong, wrote to the gov-
ernor for reinforcements ; and, accordingly, on the 16th of April
Governor Reynolds sent out "influential messengers" with
a sonorous summons. It was one of these messengers riding
JOHN A. CLARY.
John A. Clary was one of the " Clary's Grove
Boys." He was the son of John Clary, the head of
the numerous Clary family which settled in the
vicinity of New Salem in 1881. He was horn in
-Tennessee in 1815 and died in 1880. He was an
intimate associate of Lincoln during the latter's
New Salem days.
HOW LINCOLN WAS ELECTED CAPTAIN.
into New Salem who put an end to Lincoln's canvassing for the
legislature, freed him from Qffutt's expiring grocery, and led
him to enlist.
There was no time to waste. The volunteers were ordered to
be at Beardstown, nearly forty miles from New Salem, on April
22d. Horses, rifles, saddles, blankets were to be secured, a com-
pany formed. It was work of which the settlers were not igno-
rant. Under the laws of the State every able-bodied male inhab-
itant between eighteen and forty-five was obliged to drill twice a
year or pay a fine of one dollar. "As a dollar was hard to
raise," says one of the old settlers, " everybody drilled."
LINCOLN A CAPTAIN.
Preparations were quickly made, and by April 22d the men
were at Beardstown.
The day before, at Rich-
land, Sangamon County,
Lincoln had been elected
to the captaincy of the
company from Sanga-
mon to which he be-
His friend Greene
gave another reason
than ambition to ex-
plain his desire for the
captaincy. One of the
" odd jobs " which Lin-
coln had taken since
coming into Illinois was
working in a saw-mill
for a man named Kirk-
patrick. In hiring Lin-
coln, Kirkpatrick had
promised to buy him a
cant-hook with which to
move heavy logs. Lin-
coln had proposed, if
Kirkpatrick would give
him the two dollars
From a photograph made for this work. Owned by Mrs. Ott
of Petersburg, Illinois. " A kind of flat-bottomed pot, . . .
which stood upon three legs of three inches long, and had an
Iron lid. Into this bread or meats were put, and baked by
placing it on the hearth with a quantity of coals under it and
upon the lid, which was made with a rim to keep the coals upon
it, and a loop handle to lift it by. It also had a bail like a pot,
by which it could be hung over the fae." Recollections of Life
in Ohio, by WILLIAM COOPER HOWELLS.
138 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
which the cant-hook would cost, to move the logs with a common
hand-spike. This the proprietor had agreed to, bat when pay-
day came he refused to keep his word. When the Sangamon
company of volunteers was formed, Kirkpatrick aspired to the
captaincy, and Lincoln, knowing it, said to Greene: "Bill, I
believe I can now make Kirkpatrick pay that two dollars he
owes me on the cant-hook. I'll run against him for captain ;"
and he became a candidate. The vote was taken in a field, by
directing the men at the command " march " to assemble around
the one they wanted for captain. When the order was given,
three-fourths of the men gathered around Lincoln.* In Lin-
coln's curious third-person autobiography he says he was elected,
"to his own surprise ;" and adds, "He says he has not since
had any success in life which gave him so much satisfaction."
The company was a motley crowd of men. Each had secured
for his outfit what he could get, and no two were equipped alike.
Buckskin breeches prevailed, and there was a sprinkling of coon-
skin caps. Each man had a blanket of the coarsest texture. Flint-
lock rifles were the usual arms, though here and there a man had
a Cramer. Over the shoulder of each was slung a powder-horn.
The men had, as a rule, as little regard for discipline as for ap-
pearances, and when the new captain gave an order were as likely
to jeer at it as to obey it. To drive the Indians out was their
mission, and any orders which did not bear directly on that
point were little respected. Lincoln himself was not familiar
with military tactics, and made many blunders, of which he used
to tell afterwards with relish. One of his early experiences in
handling his company is particularly amusing. He was march-
ing with a front of over twenty men across a field, when he
desired to pass through a gateway into the next inclosure.
"I could not for the life of me," said he, "remember the
proper word of command for getting my company endwise, so
that it could get through the gate ; so, as we came near the gate,
I shouted, ' This company is dismissed for two minutes, when it
will fall in again on the other side of the gate ! '
Nor was it only his ignorance of the manual which caused
him trouble. He was so unfamiliar with camp discipline that he
once had his sword taken from him for shooting within limits.
* This story of Kirkpatrick's unfair treatment of Lincoln we owe to the courtesy
of Colonel Clark E. Carr of Galesburg, Illinois, to whom it was told several times
by Greene himself.
LINCOLN'S DISORDERLY COMPANY.
VIEW OF THE SANGAMON RIVER NEAR NEW SALEM.
The town lay along the ridge marked by the star.
Another disgrace lie suffered was on account of his disorderly
company. The men, unknown to him, stole a quantity of liquor
one night, and the next morning were too drunk to fall in when
the order was given to march. For their lawlessness Lincoln
wore a wooden sword two days.
But none of these small difficulties injured his standing with
the company. Lincoln was tactful, and he joined his men in
sports as well as duties. They soon grew so proud of his quick
wit and great strength that they obeyed him because they ad-
SITE OF DENTON OFFtlTT's STOKE.
From a photograph taken for this work. The building in which Lincoln clerked for
Denton Oflfutt was standing as late as 1836, and presumably stood until it rotted down. A slight
depression in the earth, evidently once a cellar, is all that remains of Oflfutt's store. Out of this
hole in the ground have grown three trees, a locust, an elm, and a sycamore, seeming to spring
from the same roots, and curiously twined together. High up on the sycamore some genius
has chiselled the face of Lincoln.
mired him. No amount of military tactics could have secured
from the volunteers the cheerful following he won by his per-
BLACK HAWK'S DEFEAT OF STILLMAN'S COMMAND. 141
The men soon
learned, too, that
he meant what he
said, and would
permit no dishon-
orable actions. A
took refuge in the
camp one day ;
and the men, who
were inspired by
that wanton mix-
ture of selfishness,
seems to seize a
soon as he scents
a red man were
determined to kill
the refugee. He
had a safe conduct
from General Cass;
but the men, hav-
ing come out to
kill Indians and
not having suc-
to take revenge on the helpless savage. Lincoln boldly took the
man's part, and, though he risked his life in doing it, he cowed
the company and saved the Indian.
It was on the 27th of April that the force of sixteen hundred
men organized at Beardstown started out. The spring was cold,
the roads heavy, the streams turbulent. The army marched
first to Yellow Banks on the Mississippi ; then to Dixon on the
Rock River, which they reached on May 12th. At Dixon they
camped, and near here occurred the first bloodshed of the war.
A body of about three hundred and forty rangers under
JOHN POTTEK, NEIGHBOR OF LINCOLN S AT NEW SALEM.
From a recent photograph. John Potter, born November 10, 1808,
was a few months older than Lincoln. He is now living at Petersburg,
Illinois. He settled in the country one and one-half miles from New
Salem in 1820. Mr. Potter remembers Lincoln's first appearance in New
Salem, in July, 1831. He corroborates the stories told of his store, of
his popularity in the community, and of the general impression that he
was an unusually promising young man.
142 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
Major Stillman, but not of the regular army, asked to go ahead
as scouts, to look for a body of Indians under Black Hawk,
rumored to be about twelve miles away. The permission was
given, and on the night of the 14th of May, Stillman and his men
went into camp. Black Hawk heard of their presence. By this
time the poor old chief had discovered that the promises of aid
from the Indian tribes and the British were false, and, dismayed,
he had resolved to recross the Mississippi. When he heard of
the whites near, he sent three braves with a white flag to ask
for a parley and permission to descend the river. Behind them
he sent five men to watch proceedings. Stillman' s rangers were
in camp when the bearers of the flag of truce appeared. The
men were many of them half drunk, and when they saw the
Indian truce-bearers, they rushed out in a wild mob, and ran
them into camp. Then catching sight of the five spies, they
started after them, killing two. The three who reached Black
Hawk reported that the truce-bearers had been killed, as well as
their two companions. Furious at this violation of faith, Black
Hawk raised a yell, and sallied forth with forty braves to meet
Stillman' s band, who by this time were out in search of the
Indians. Black Hawk, too maddened to think of the difference
of numbers, attacked the whites. To his surprise the enemy
turned, and fled in a wild riot. Nor did they stop at their camp,
which from its position was almost impregnable ; they fled in
complete panic, sauve qui peut, through their camp, across
prairie and rivers and swamps, to Dixon, twelve miles away.
The first arrival reported that two thousand savages had swept
down on Stillman' s camp and slaughtered all but himself.
Before the next night all but eleven of the band had arrived.
Stillman' s defeat, as this disgraceful affair is called, put all
notion of peace out of Black Hawk's mind, and he started out in
earnest on the warpath. By the morning of the 15th, Governor
Reynolds and his army were in pursuit of Black Hawk. But
it was like pursuing a shadow. The Indians purposely CDnfused
their trail. Sometimes it was a broad path, then it suddenly
radiated to all points. The whites broke their bands, and pur-
sued the savages here and there, never overtaking them, though
now and then coming suddenly on some terrible evidences of
their presence a frontier home deserted and burned, slaugh-
tered cattle, scalps suspended where the army could not fail to
ZACHARY TAYLORS WAY WITH INSUBORDINATES. 143
BOWLING GREEN'S HOUSE.
From a photograph made for this work . Bowling Green's log cabin, half a mile north of New
Salem, just under the bluff, still stands, but long since ceased to be a dwelling-house, and is now a
tumble-down old stable. Here Lincoln was a frequent boarder, especially during the period of hia
closest application to the study of the law. Stretched out on the cellar door of this cabin, reading
a book, he met for the first time " Dick " Yates, then a college student at Jacksonville, and destined
to become the great " War Governor " of the State. Yates had come home with William G.
Greene to spend his vacation, and Greene took him around to Bowling Green's house to introduce
him to " his friend, Abe Lincoln." Unhappily there is nowhere in existence a picture of the original
occupant of this humble cabin. Bowling Green was one of the leading citizens of the county. He
was County Commissioner from 1826 to 1828 ; he was for many years a justice of the peace ; he was a
prominent member of the Masonic fraternity, and a very active and uncompromising Whig. The
friendship between him and Lincoln, beginning at a very early day, c&ntinued until his death, in 1842.
This fruitless warfare exasperated the volunteers ; they
threatened to leave, and their officers had great difficulty in.
making them obey orders. On reaching a point on the Rock
River, beyond which lay the Indian country, the men under Colo-
nel Zachary Taylor refused to cross, urging that they had vol-
unteered only to defend the State, and had the right to refuse to
go out of its borders. Taylor heard them to the end, and then
said : "I feel that all gentlemen here are my equals ; in reality,
I am persuaded that many of them will, in a few years, be my
superiors, and perhaps, in the capacity of members of Congress,
arbiters of the fortunes and reputation of humble servants of
the Republic, like myself. I expect then to obey them as inter-
preters of the will of the people ; and the best proof that I will
obey them is now to observe the orders of those whom the people
have already put in the place of authority to which many gen-
tlemen around me justly aspire. In plain English, gentlemen
and fellow-citizens, the word has been passed on to me from
144 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
Washington to follow Black Hawk and to take you with me as
soldiers. I mean to do both. There are the flatboats drawn
up on the shore, and here are Uncle Sam's men drawn up behind
you on the prairie." The volunteers knew true grit when they
met it. They dissolved their meeting and crossed the river with-
out Uncle Sam' s men being called into action.
LINCOLN AN INDEPENDENT RANGER. MAJOR ILES'S REMINISCENCES
OF THE CAMPAIGN. END OP THE BLACK HAWK WAR.
HE march in pursuit of the Indians led the army
to Ottawa, where the volunteers became so dis-
satisfied that on May 27th and 28th Governor
Reynolds mustered them out. But a force in
the field was essential until a new levy was raised,
and a few of the men were patriotic enough to
offer their services, among them Lincoln, who,
on May 29th, was mustered in, at the mouth of
the Fox River, by a man in whom, thirty years
later, he was to have a keen interest General Robert Anderson,
commander at Fort Sumter in 1861. Lincoln became a private in
Captain Elijah lies' s company of Independent Rangers, not
brigaded a company made up, says Captain lies in his "Foot-
steps and Wanderings," of "generals, colonels, captains, and
distinguished men from the disbanded army." General Ander-
son says that at this muster Lincoln's arms were valued at forty
dollars, his horse and equipment at one hundred and twenty
dollars. The Independent Rangers were a favored body, used to
carry messages and to spy on the enemy. They had no camp
duties, and " drew rations as often as they pleased ; " so that as
a private Lincoln was really better off than as a captain.*
* William Cullen Bryant, who was in Illinois in 1832, at the time of the Black Hawk
War, used to tell of meeting in his travels in the State a company of Illinois volunteers,
commanded by a " raw youth " of " quaint and pleasant " speech, who, he learned after-
wards, was Abraham Lincoln. As Lincoln's captaincy ended ou May 27th, and Mr.
Bryant did not reach Illinois until June 12th, and as he never came nearer than fifty
miles to the Rapids of the Illinois, where the body of rangers to which Lincoln be-
longed was encamped, it is evident that the " raw youth " could not have been Lincoln,
much as one would like to believe that it was.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN. HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED.
From a photograph in the collection of T. H. Bartlett, the sculptor, of Boston, Massachusetts. Mr.
Bartlett regards this as his earliest portrait of Mr. Lincoln, but does not know when or where it was taken.
This portrait is also in the Oldroyd collection at Washington, D. C., where it is dated 1856. The collection
of Lincoln portraits owned by Mr. Bartlett is the most complete and the most intelligently arranged which
we have examined. Mr. Bartlett began collecting fully twenty years ago, his aim being to secure data for
a study of Mr. Lincoln from a physiognomical point of view. He has probably the earliest portrait which
exists, the one here given, excepting the early daguerreotype owned by Mr. Robert Lincoln. He has a
large number of the Illinois pictures made from 1858 to 1860, such as the Gilmer picture (page 209); a large
collection of Brady photographs, the masks, Volk's bust, and other interesting portraits. These he has
studied from a sculptor's point of view, comparing them carefully with the portraiture of other men, as
Webster and Emerson. Mr. Bartlett has embodied his study of Mr. Lincoln in an illustrated lecture,
which is a model of what such a lecture should be, suggestive, human, delightful. All his fine collection
of Lincoln portraits Mr. Bartlett has put freely at our disposal, an act of courtesy and generosity for which
the readers of this work, as well as the authors, cannot fail to be deeply grateful.
A NEAR VIEW OF THE BLACK HAWK WAR. 147
The achievements and tribulations of the body of rangers to
which he belonged are told with interesting detail by Major
11 While the other companies were ordered to scout the coun-
try," says Major lies, "mine was held by General Atkinson in
camp as a reserve. One company was ordered to go to Rock
River (now Dixon) and report to Colonel Taylor (afterwards
President), who had been left there with a few United States
soldiers to guard the army supplies. The place was also made
a point of rendezvous. Just as the company got to Dixon, a
man came in, and reported that he and six others were on the
road to Galena, and, in passing through a point of timber about
twenty miles north of Dixon, they were fired on and six killed, he
being the only one to make his escape. . . . Colonel Taylor
ordered the company to proceed to the place, bury the dead, go
on to Galena, and get all the information they could about the
Indians. But the company took fright, and came back to the
Illinois River, helter-skelter.
"General Atkinson then called on me, and wanted to know
how I felt about taking the trip ; that he was exceedingly anxious
to open communication with Galena, and to find out, if possible,
the whereabouts of the Indians before the new troops arrived. I
answered the general that myself and men were getting rusty,
and were anxious to have something to do, and that nothing
would please us better than to be ordered out on an expedition ;
that I would find out how many of my men had good horses and
were otherwise well equipped, and what time we wanted to pre-
pare for the trip. I called on him again at sunset, and reported
that I had about fifty men well equipped and eager, and that we
wanted one day to make preparations. He said go ahead, and he
would prepare our orders.
"The next day was a busy one, running bullets and getting
our flint-locks in order we had no percussion locks then.
General Henry, one of my privates, who had been promoted to
the position of major of one of the companies, volunteered to go
with us. I considered him a host, as he had served as lieu-
tenant in the war of 1812, under General Scott, and was in the
battle of Lundy's Lane, and several other battles. He was
a good drill officer, and could aid me much. . . . After
General Atkinson handed me my orders, and my men were
mounted and ready for the trip, I felt proud of them, and was
148 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
confident of our success, although numbering only forty-eight.
Several good men failed to go, as they had gone down to the foot
of the Illinois Rapids, to aid in bringing up the boats of army
supplies. We wanted to be as little encumbered as possible, and
took nothing that could be dispensed with, other than blankets,
tin cups, coffee-pots, canteens, a wallet of bread, and some fat
side meat, which we ate raw or broiled.
" When we arrived at Rock River, we found Colonel Taylor
on the opposite side, in a little fort built of prairie sod. He sent
an officer in a canoe to bring me over. I said to the officer that I
would come over as soon as I got my men in camp. I knew of a
good spring half a mile above, and I determined to camp at it.
After the men were in camp I called on General Henry, and he
accompanied me. On meeting Colonel Taylor (he looked like a
man born to command) he seemed a little piqued that I did not
come over and camp with him. I told him we felt just as safe as
if quartered in his one-horse fort ; besides, I knew what his
orders would be, and wanted to try the mettle of my men before
starting on the perilous trip I knew he would order. He said
the trip was perilous, and that since the murder of the six men
all communication with Galena had been cut off, and it might be
besieged ; that he wanted me to proceed to Galena, and that he
would have my orders for me in the morning, and asked what
outfit I wanted. I answered, ' Nothing but coffee, side meat, and
" In the morning my orders were to collect and bury the re-
mains of the six men murdered, proceed to Galena, make a care-
ful search for the signs of Indians, and find out whether they were
aiming to escape by crossing the river below Galena, and get all
information at Galena of their possible whereabouts before the
new troops were ready to follow them.
"John Dixon, who kept a house of entertainment here, and
had sent his family to Galena for safety, joined us, and hauled
our wallets of corn and grub in his wagon, which was a great
help. Lieutenant Harris, U.S.A., also joined us. I now had
fifty men to go with me on the march. I detailed two to march
on the right, two on the left, and two in advance, to act as look-
outs to prevent a surprise. They were to keep in full view of us,
and to remain out until we camped for the night. Just at sun-
down of the first day, while we were at lunch, our advance
scouts came in under whip and reported Indians. We bounced
THE BLACK HAWK.
From a photograph made for this work. After a portrait by George Catlin, in the National
Museum at Washington, D. C., and here reproduced by the courtesy of the director, Mr. G.
Brown Goode. Makataimeshekiakiak, the Black Hawk Sparrow, was born hi 1767, on the Rock
River. He was not a chief by birth, but through the valor of his deeds became the leader of
his village. He was imaginative and discontented, and bred endless trouble in the Northwest by
his complaints and his visionary schemes. He was completely under the influence of the British
agents, and in 1812 joined Tecumseh in the war against the United States. After the close of that
war the Hawk was peaceable until driven to resistance by the encroachments of the squatters.
After the battle of Bad Axe he escaped, and was not captured until betrayed by two Winneba-
goes. He was taken to Fort Armstrong, where he signed a treaty of peace, and then was trans-
ferred as a prisoner of war to Jefferson Barracks, now St. Louis, where Catlin painted him.
Catlin, in his "Eight Years," says : "When I painted this chief he was dressed in a plain suit of
buckskin, with a string of wampum in his ears and on his neck, and held in his hand his medi-
cine-bag, which was the skin of a black hawk, from which he had taken his name, and the tail of
which made him a fan, which he was almost constantly using." In April, 1833, Black Hawk and
the other prisoners of war were transferred to Fortress Monroe. They were released in June, and
made a trip through the Atlantic cities before returning West. Black Hawk settled in Iowa, where
he and his followers were given a small reservation in Davis County. He died in 1888.
to our feet, and, having a full view
of the road for a long distance, could
see a large body coming toward us.
All eyes were turned to John Dixon,
who, as the last one dropped out of
sight coming over a ridge, pronounced
them Indians. I stationed my men in
a ravine crossing the road, where any
one approaching could not see us until
within thirty yards ; the horses I had
driven back out of sight in a valley.
I asked General Henry to take com-
mand. He said, 'No; stand at your
post,' and walked along the line, talk-
ing to the men in a low, calm voice.
Lieutenant Harris, U.S.A., seemed
much agitated ; he ran up and down
the line, and exclaimed, ' Captain, we
will catch hell ! ' He had horse-
pistols, belt-pistols, and a double-
barrelled gun. He would pick the
flints, reprime, and lay the horse-
pistols at his feet. When he got all
ready he passed along the line slowly,
and seeing the nerves of the men all
quiet after General Henry's talk to
them said, ' Captain, we are safe ;
we can whip five hundred Indians.'
Instead of Indians, they proved to be
the command of General Dodge, from
Galena, of one hundred and fifty men,
en route to find out what had become
of General Atkinson's army, as, since
the murder of the six men, communi-
cation had been stopped for more than ten days. My look-out
at the top of the hill did not notify us, and we were not unde-
ceived until they got within thirty steps of us. My men then
raised a yell and ran to finish their lunch. . . .
" When we got within fifteen miles of Galena, on Apple Creek,
we found a stockade filled with women and children and a few
men, all terribly frightened. The Indians had shot at and chased
WHITE CLOUD, THE PKOPUET.
From a photograph made for this
work. After a painting in the collection
of the State Historical Society of Wiscon-
sin, and here reproduced through the
courtesy of the secretary, Mr. Reuben G.
Thwaites. The chief of an Indian vil-
lage on the Rock River, White Cloud
was half Winnebago, half Sac. He was
false and crafty, and it was largely his
counsels which induced Black Hawk to
recross the Mississippi in 1832. He was
captured with Black Hawk, was a pris-
oner at both Jefferson Barracks and
Fortress Monroe, and made the tour of
the Atlantic cities with his friends. The
above portrait was made at Fortress Mon-
roe by R. M. Sully. Catlin also painted
White Cloud at Jefferson Barracks in
1832. He describes him as about forty
years old at that time, " nearly six feet
high, stout and athletic." He said he
let his hair grow out to please the
whites. Catlin's picture shows him
with a very heavy head of hair. The
prophet, after his return from the East,
remained among his people until his
death in 1840 or 1841.
FRANTIC TERROR RAISED BY BLACK HAWK.
From a photograph made for this
work. After an improved replica of the
original portrait painted by R. M. Sully
at Fortress Monroe in 1833, and now in
the Museum of the State Historical So-
ciety of Wisconsin, at Madison. It is
reproduced through the courtesy of the
secretary of the society, Mr. Rueben G.
the fort, but
guns on our arms. General Henry did
not sleep, but drilled my men all night ;
so the moment they were called they
would bounce to their feet and stand
in two lines, the front ready to fire,
and fall back to reload, while the
others stepped forward to take their
places. They were called up a num-
ber of times, and we got but little
sleep. We arrived at Galena the next
day, and found the citizens prepared
to defend the place. They were glad
to see us, as it had been so long since
they had heard from General Atkin-
son and his army. The few Indians
prowling about Galena and murdering were simply there as a ruse.
"On our return from Galena, near the forks of the Apple
River and Gratiot roads, we could see General Dodge on the
Gratiot road, on his return from Rock River. His six scouts had
discovered my two men that I had allowed to drop in the rear
From a photograph made for this
work. After a painting by R. M. Sully
in the collection of the State Historical
Society of Wisconsin, and here repro-
duced through the courtesy of the secre-
tary, Mr. Reuben G. Thwaites. Black
Hawk had two sons : the elder was the
Whirling Thunder, the younger the
Roaring Thunder ; both were in the war,
and both were taken prisoners with their
father, and were with him at Jefferson
Barracks and at Fortress Monroe and on
the trip through the Atlantic cities. At
Jefferson Barracks Catlin painted them,
and the pictures are in the National Mu-
seum. While at Fortress Monroe the
above picture of Whirling Thunder was
painted. A pretty anecdote is told of the
Whirling Thunder. While on their tour
through the East the Indians were invit-
ed to various gatherings, and much was
done for their entertainment. On one of
these occasions a young lady sang a
ballad. Whirling Thunder listened in-
tently, and when she ended he plucked
an eagle's feather from his head-dress
and, giving it to a white friend, said :
" Take that to your mocking-bird
squaw." Black Hawk's sons remained
with him until his death in 1838, and
then removed with the Sacs and Foxes
two men who had been in Still-
man's defeat, and, having weak
horses, were allowed to fall be-
hind. Having weak horses they
^ ^ had fallen in the rear about two
^RVi miles, and each took the other
izsikr i^MBk. Mmri!
to be Indians, and such an ex-
citing race I never saw, until
they got sight of my company ;
then they came to a sudden halt,
and after looking at us a few
moments, wheeled their horses
and gave up the chase. My two
men did not know but that they
were Indians until they came up
with us and shouted ' Indians ! '
They had thrown away their
wallets and guns, and used their
ramrods as whips.
"The few houses on the road
that usually accommodated the
travel were all standing, but
vacant, as we went. On our re-
turn we found them burned by
the Indians. On my return to the Illinois River I reported to
General Atkinson, saying that, from all we could learn, the
Indians were aiming to escape by going north, with the inten-
tion of crossing the Mississippi River above Galena. The new
troops had just arrived and were being mustered into service.
My company had only been organized for twenty days, and as
the time had now expired, the men were mustered out. All but
myself again volunteered for the third time."
At the breaking out of the Black Hawk War,
Zachary Taylor, afterwards general in the Mexi-
can War, and finally President of the United States,
was colonel of the First Infantry. He joined At-
kinson at the beginning of the war, and was in
active service until the end of the campaign.
LINCOLN AND HIS COMPANY ENTER MICHIGAN TERRITORY.
On June 20th Lincoln was mustered in again, by Major Ander-
son, as a member of an independent company under Captain
Jacob M. Early. His arms were valued this time at only fifteen
dollars, his horse and equipment at eighty-five dollars.*
* See " Wisconsin Historical Collections," Volume X., for Major Anderson's remi-
niscences of the Black Hawk War.
SUFFERINGS OF THE ARMY AND SETTLERS.
Tomahawk. Indian Pipe. Powder-horn.
Flint-lock Rifle. Indian Flute.
BLACK HAWK WAR RELICS.
From a photograph made for this work. This group of relics of the Black Hawk War was selected for
UB from the collection in the museum of the Wisconsin Historical Society by the secretary, Mr. Reuben G.
Thwaites. The coat and chapeau belonged to General Dodge, an important leader in the war. The Indian
relics are a tomahawk, a Winnebago pipe, a Winnebago flute, and a knife. The powder-horn and the flint-
lock rifle are the only volunteer articles. One of the survivors of the war, Mr. Elijah Herring of Stockton,
Illinois, says of the flintlock rifles used by the Illinois volunteers : ll They were constructed like the old-
fashioned rifle, only in place of a nipple for a cap they had a pan in which was fixed an oil flint which the
hammer struck when it came down, instead of the modern cap. The pan was filled with powder grains,
enough to catch the spark and communicate it to the load in the gun. These guns were all right, and rarely
missed fire on a dry, clear day; but unless they were covered well, the dews of evening would dampen the
powder, and very often we were compelled to withdraw the charge and load them over again. We had a
gunsmith with us, whose business it was to look after the guns for the whole regiment ; and when a gun was
found to be damp, it was his duty to get his tools and ' draw ' the load. At that time the Cramer lock and
triggers had just been put on the market, and my rifle was equipped with these improvements, a fact of
which I was very proud. Instead of one trigger my rifle had two, one set behind the other the hind one
to cock the gun, and the front one to shoot it. The man Cramer sold his lock and triggers in St. Louis,
and I was one of the first to use them."
The army moved up Rock River soon after the middle of
June. Black Hawk was overrunning the country, and scatter-
ing death wherever he went. The settlers were wild with fear,
and most of the settlements were abandoned. At a sudden
sound, at the merest rumor, men, women, and children fled. "I
well remember those troublesome times," says one old Illinois
woman. "We often left our bread-dough unbaked, to rush to
154 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
the Indian fort near by." When Mr. John Bryant, a brother of
William Cullen Bryant, visited the colony in Princeton, in 1832,
he found it nearly broken up on account of the war. Every-
where the crops were neglected, for the able-bodied men were
volunteering. William Cullen Bryant, who, in June, 1834, trav-
elled on horseback from Petersburg to near Pekin, and back,
wrote home : ' ' Every few miles on our way we fell in with
bodies of Illinois militia proceeding to the American camp, or
saw where they had encamped for the night. They generally
stationed themselves near a stream or a spring in the edge of a
wood, and turned their horses to graze on the prairie. Their way
was barked or girdled, and the roads through the uninhabited
country were as much beaten and as dusty as the highways on
New York Island. Some of the settlers complained that they
made war upon the pigs and chickens. They were a hard-looking
set of men, unkempt and unshaved, wearing shirts of dark calico,
and sometimes calico capotes."
Soon after the army moved up the Rock River, the indepen-
dent spy company, of which Lincoln was a member, was sent
with a brigade to the northwest, near Galena, in pursuit of the
Hawk. The nearest Lincoln came to an actual engagement in
the war was here. The skirmish of Kellogg' s Grove took place on
June 25th; Lincoln's company came up soon after it was over,
and helped bury the five men killed. It was probably to this
experience that he referred when he told a friend once of com-
ing on a camp of white scouts one morning just as the sun was
rising. The Indians had surprised the camp, and had killed and
scalped every man.
" I remember just how those men looked," said Lincoln, "as
we rode up the little hill where their camp was. The red light
of the morning sun was streaming upon them as they lay heads
towards us on the ground. And every man had a round red spot
on the top of his head, about as big as a dollar, where the red-
skins had taken his scalp. It was frightful, but it was gro-
tesque ; and the red sunlight seemed to paint everything all
over." Lincoln paused, as if recalling the vivid picture, and
added, somewhat irrelevantly, ' ' I remember that one man had
buckskin breeches on."
By the end of the month the troops crossed into Michigan
Territory as Wisconsin was then called and July was passed
floundering in swamps and stumbling through forests, in pursuit
LINCOLN'S FIRST EXPERIENCES ON THE STUMP. 155
of the now nearly exhausted Black Hawk. On July 10th, three
weeks before the last battle of the war, that of Bad Axe, in
which the whites finally massacred most of the Indian band, Lin-
coln's company was disbanded at Whitewater, Wisconsin, and he
and his friends started for home. The volunteers in returning
suffered much from hunger. Mr. Durley of Hennepin, Illinois,
who walked home from Rock Island, Illinois, says all he had to
eat on the journey was meal and water baked in rolls of bark
laid by the fire. Lincoln was little better off. The night before
his company started from White water he and one of his mess-
mates had their horses stolen ; and, excepting when their more
fortunate companions gave them a lift, they walked as far as
Peoria, Illinois, where they bought a canoe, and paddled down
the Illinois River to Havana. Here they sold the canoe, and
walked across the country to New Salem.
ELECTIONEERING IX 1832 IX ILLIXOIS. LIXCOLX DEFEATED OF
ELECTIOX TO THE ASSEMBLY. BUYS A STORE.
N returning to New Salem, Lincoln at once plunged
into electioneering. He ran as u an avowed Clay
man," and the county was stiffly Democratic.
However, in those days political contests were
almost purely personal. If the candidate was
liked he was voted for irrespective of principles.
"The Democrats of New Salem worked for Lin-
coln out of their personal regard for him," said
Stephen T. Logan, a young lawyer of Springfield,
who made Lincoln's acquaintance in the campaign. " He was as
stiff as a man could be in his Whig doctrines. They did this for
him simply because he was popular ; because he was Lincoln."
It was the custom for the candidates to appear at every
gathering which brought the people out, and, if they had a
chance, to make speeches. Then, as now, the farmers gathered
at the county-seat, or at the largest town within their reach,
on Saturday afternoons, to dispose of produce, buy supplies,
see their neighbors, and get the news. During election times
candidates were always present, and a regular feature of the day
was listening to their speeches. Public sales, also, were gather-
ings which they never missed, it being expected that after the
" vandoo " the candidates would take the auctioneer's place.
Lincoln let none of these chances to be heard slip. Accom-
panied by his Mends, generally including a few Clary's Grove
Boys, he always was present. The first speech he made was
after a sale at Pappsville. What he said there is not remem-
bered ; but an illustration of the kind of man he was, interpo-
lated into his discourse, made a lasting impression. A fight broke
out in his audience while he was on the stand, and observing
that one of his friends was being worsted, he bounded into
the group of contestants, seized the fellow who had his supporter
down, threw him "ten or twelve feet," remounted the platform,
and finished the speech. Sangamon County could appreciate
such a performance, and the crowd that day at Pappsville never
His appearance at Springfield at this time was of great im-
portance to him. Springfield was not then a very attractive
place. Bryant, visiting it in June, 1832, said that the houses
SCENE OF STILLMAN 8 DEFEAT.
Prom a photograph loaned by S. J. Dodds of Lena, Illinois.
LINCOLN MAKES VALUABLE ACQUAINTANCES. 157
were not as good as at Jackson-
ville, "a considerable propor-
tion of them being log cabins,
and the whole town having an
appearance of dirt and discom-
fort." Nevertheless it was the
largest town in the county, and
among its inhabitants were many
young men of education, birth,
and energy. One of these men
Lincoln had become well ac-
quainted with in the Black Hawk
War, Major John Stuart,* at
that time a lawyer, and, like
Lincoln, a candidate for the
General Assembly. He met
others at this time who were to
be associated with him more or
less closely in the future in both
law and politics, SUCh aS Judge Louis Arsenal when the Black Hawk Var broke
Logan and William Butler.
With these men the manners
which had won him the day at
Pappsville were of no value;
what impressed them was his
" very sensible speech," and his
decided individuality and origin-
The election came off on
August 6th. Lincoln was de-
Prom a photograph In the war collection of Mr. Robert
MAJOR ROBERT ANDERSON.
Born in Kentucky in 1805. In 1825 graduated
at West Point. Anderson was on duty at the St.
* There were many prominent Americans
in the Black Hawk War, with some of whom
Lincoln became acquainted. Among the
best known were General Robert Anderson;
Colonel Zachary Taylor; General Scott,
afterwards candidate for President, and
Lieutenant-General; Henry Dodge, Gover-
out. He asked permission to join General Atkin-
son, who commanded the expedition against the
Indians ; was placed on his staff as Assistant In-
spector-General, and was with him until the end
of the war. Anderson twice mustered Lincoln
into the service and once out. When General
Scott was sent to take Atkinson's place, Ander-
son was ordered to report to the former for duty,
and was sent by him to take charge of the In-
dians captured at Bad Axe. It was Anderson who
conducted Black Hawk to Jefferson Barracks.
His adjutant in this task was Lieutenant Jeffer-
son Davis. From 1835-37 Anderson was an in-
structor at West Point. He served in the Florida
War in 1837-38, and was wounded at Molino del
Hey in the Mexican War. In 1857 he was ap-
pointed Major of the First Artillery. On Novem-
ber 20, 1860, Anderson assumed command of the
troops in Charleston Harbor. On April 14th he
surrendered Fort Sumter, marching out with the
honors of war. He was made brigadier-general
by Lincoln for his service. On account of failing
health he was relieved from duty in October, 1861.
In 1865 he was brevetted major-general. He died
in France in 1871.
nor of the Territory of Wisconsin, and United
States Senator; Hon. William L. D. Ewing and Hon. Sidney Breese, both United States
Senators from Illinois; William S. Hamilton, a son of Alexander Hamilton; Colonel
Nathan Boone, son of Daniel Boone ; Lieutenant Albert Sydney Johnston, afterwards a
Confederate general. Jefferson Davis was not in the war, according to the muster-rolls
of his company, which report him absent on furlough from March 26 to August 18, 1832.
158 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
feated. "This was the only time Abraham was ever defeated
on a direct vote of the people, ' ' say his autobiographical notes.
He had a consolation in his defeat, however, for in spite of the
pronounced Democratic sentiments of his precinct, he received
two hundred and seventy-seven votes out of three hundred cast.
The facts upon this point are here stated for the first time. The
biographers, as a rule, have agreed that Lincoln received all of
the votes cast in the New Salem precinct, except three. Mr.
Herndon places the total vote at 208 ; Mcolay and Hay, at 277 ;
and Mr. Lincoln himself, in his autobiography, has said that he
received all but seven of a total of 277 votes, basing his statement,
no doubt, upon memory. An examination of the official poll-book
in the county clerk's office at Springfield shows that all of these
figures are erroneous ; exactly three hundred votes were cast. Of
these Lincoln received 277. The fact remains, however and it is
a fact which has been commented upon by several of the biogra-
phers as showing his phenomenal popularity that the vote for
Lincoln was far in excess of that given any other candidate. The
twelve candidates, with the number of votes of each, were : Abra-
ham Lincoln, 277 ; John T. Stewart, 182 ; William Carpenter, 136 ;
John Dawson, 105 ; E. D. Taylor, 88 ; Archer G. Herndon, 84 ;
Peter Cartwright, 62 ; Achilles Morris, 27 ; Thomas M. Neal, 21 ;
Edward Robeson, 15 ; Zachariah Peters, 4 ; Richard Dunston, 4.
Of the twenty-three who did not vote for Lincoln, ten re-
frained from voting for representative at all, thus leaving only
thirteen votes actually cast against Lincoln. Lincoln is not re-
corded as voting. This defeat did not take him out of politics.
The first civil office Lincoln ever held was that of clerk of the
next election, in September. The report in his hand still exists ;
as far as we know, it is his first official document.
LOOKING FOE WOEK.
It was in August, 1832, that Lincoln made his unsuccessful
canvass for the Illinois Assembly. The election over, he began
to look for work. One of his friends, an admirer of his physical
strength, advised him to become a blacksmith, but it was a trade
which afforded little leisure for study, and for meeting and talk-
ing with men ; and he had already resolved, it is evident, that
books and men were essential to him. The only employment
in New Salem which offered both support and the opportunities
NEW SALEM MERCHANTS IN LINCOLN'S DAY.
BAD AXE BATTLE-GROUND.
From a copy of a painting by Samuel M. Brookes, in the Museum of the Wisconsin Historical Society.
The remnant of Black Hawk's force was slaughtered here on August 1st and 3d, while attempting to cross
the Mississippi. Only about one hundred and fifty of his original band of one thousand escaped.
he sought, was clerking in a store. But the stores of New Salem
were in more need of customers than of clerks. The business
had been greatly overdone. In the fall of 1832 there were at
least four stores in New Salem. The most pretentious was that
of Hill and McNeill, which carried a large line of dry goods. The
three others, owned respectively by the Herndon brothers,
Reuben Radford, and James Rutledge, were groceries.
DECIDES TO BUY A STORE.
Failing to secure employment at any of these establishments,
Lincoln resolved to buy a store. He was not long in finding
an opportunity to purchase. James Herndon had already sold
out his half interest in Herndon Brothers' store to William
F. Berry ; and Rowan Herndon, not getting along well with
Berry, was only too glad to find a purchaser of his half in the
person of " Abe " Lincoln. Berry was as poor as Lincoln ; but
that was not a serious obstacle, for their notes were accepted
for the Herndon stock of goods. They had barely hung out
160 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
their sign when something happened which threw another store
into their hands. Reuben Radford had made himself obnoxious
to the Clary's Grove Boys, and one night they broke in his doors
and windows, and overturned his counters and sugar barrels.
It was too much for Radford, and he sold out next day to
William G. Green for a four-hundred-dollar note signed by
Green. At the latter' s request, Lincoln made an inventory of
the stock, and then offered him six hundred and fifty dollars for ifc
a proposition which was cheerfully accepted. Berry and Lin-
coln, being unable to pay cash, assumed the four-hundred-dollar
note payable to Radford, and gave Green their joint note for two
hundred and fifty dollars. The little grocery owned by James
Rutledge was the next to succumb. Berry and Lincoln bought
it at a bargain, their joint note taking the pla,ce of cash. The
three stocks were consolidated. Their aggregate cost must have
been not less than fifteen hundred dollars. Berry and Lincoln
had secured a monopoly of the grocery business in New Salem.
Within a few weeks two penniless men had become the proprie-
tors of three stores, and had stopped buying only because there
were no more to purchase.
William F. Berry, the partner of Lincoln, was the son of a
Presbyterian minister, the Rev. John Berry, who lived on Rock
Creek, five miles from New Salem. The son had strayed from
the footsteps of the father, for he was a hard drinker, a gambler,
a fighter, and "a very wicked young man." Lincoln cannot in
truth be said to have chosen such a partner, but rather to have
accepted him from the force of circumstances. It required only
a little time to make plain that the partnership was wholly
uncongenial. Lincoln displayed little business capacity. He
trusted largely to Berry, and Berry rapidly squandered the
profits of the business in riotous living. Lincoln loved books as
Berry loved liquor, and hour after hour he was stretched out on
the counter of the store, or under a shade tree, reading Shake-
speare or Burns.
His acquaintance with the works of these two writers dates
from this period. In New Salem there was one of those curi-
ous individuals sometimes found in frontier settlements, half
poet, half loafer, incapable of earning a living in any steady
employment, yet familiar with good literature and capable of
enjoying it Jack Kelso. He repeated passages from Shake-
speare and Burns incessantly over the odd jobs he under-
LINCOLN IN I860. HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED.
Prom a photograph loaned by H. W. Fay of DeKalb, Illinois. After Lincoln's nomination
lor the presidency, Alexander Hesler of Chicago published a portrait he had made of Lincoln in
1857 (see page 49). At the same time he put out a portrait of Douglas. The contrast was
so great between the two, and in the opinion of the politicians so much in Douglas's favor, that
they told Hesler he must suppress Lincoln's picture ; accordingly the photographer wrote to
Springfield, requesting Lincoln to call and sit again. Lincoln replied that his friends had de-
cided that he remain in Springfield during the canvass, but that if Hesler would come to
Springfield he would be "dressed up" and give him all the time he wanted. Hesler went
to Springfield, and made at least four negatives, three of which are supposed to have been
destroyed in the Chicago fire. The fourth is owned by Mr. George Ayere of Philadelphia. The
photograph reproduced above is a print from one of the lost negatives.
LINCOLN'S FAMILIARITY WITH SHAKESPEARE. 163
took, or as he idled by the streams for he was a famous fisher-
man and Lincoln soon became one of his constant companions.
The taste he formed in company with Kelso he retained through
William D. Kelley records an incident which shows that Lin-
coln had a really intimate knowledge of Shakespeare. Mr. Kelley
had taken McDonough, an actor, to call at the White House,
and Lincoln began the conversation by saying :
" 'I am very glad to meet you, Mr. McDonough, and am
grateful to Kelley for bringing you in so early, for I want you to
tell me something about Shakespeare's plays as they are con-
structed for the stage. You can imagine that I do not get much
time to study such matters, but I recently had a couple of talks
with Hackett Baron Hackett, as they call him who is famous
as Jack Falstaff, from whom I elicited few satisfactory replies,
though I probed him with a good many questions.'
"Mr. McDonough," continues Mr. Kelley, "avowed his
willingness to give the Presideijt any information in his pos-
session, but protested that he feared he would not succeed where
his friend Hackett had failed. 'Well, I don't know,' said the
President, ' for Hackett' s lack of information impressed me with
a doubt as to whether he had ever studied Shakespeare's text,
or had not been content with the acting edition of his plays/
He arose, went to a shelf not far from his table, and having
taken down a well-thumbed volume of the ' Plays ' of Shakes-
peare, resumed his seat, arranged his glasses, and having turned
to ' Henry VI.' and read with fine discrimination an extended
passage, said : ' Mr. McDonough, can you tell me why those
lines are omitted from the acting play ? There is nothing I have
read in Shakespeare, certainly nothing in "Henry VI." or the
"Merry Wives of Windsor," that surpasses its wit and humor.'
The actor suggested the breadth of its humor as the only reason
he could assign for its omission, but thoughtfully added that it
was possible that if the lines were spoken they would require
the rendition of another or other passages which might be objec-
"'Your last suggestion,' said Mr. Lincoln, 'carries with it
greater weight than anything Mr. Hackett suggested, but the
first is no reason at all ; ' and after reading another passage, he
said, 'This is not withheld, and where it passes current there
can be no reason for withholding the other.' . . . And, as if
feeling the impropriety
of preferring the player
to the parson [there was
a clergyman in the room],
he turned to the chaplain
and said: 'From your
calling it is probable that
you do not know that the
acting plays which peo-
ple crowd to hear are not
always those planned by
their reputed authors.
Thus, take the stage edi-
tion of "Richard III."
It opens with a passage
from "Henry VI.," after
which come portions of
"Richard III.," then
another scene from
"Henry VI.;" and the
finest soliloquy in the
play, if we may judge
from the many quota-
tions it furnishes, and
the frequency with which
it is heard in amateur
exhibitions, was never
seen by Shakespeare, but
was written was it not,
Mr. McDonough ? after
his death, by Colley Cib-
"Having disposed, for the present, of questions relating to
the stage editions of the plays, he recurred to his standard copy,
and . . . read, or repeated from memory, extracts from sev-
eral of the plays, some of which embraced a number of lines.
. . . He interspersed his remarks with extracts striking from
their similarity to, or contrast with, something of Shakespeare's,
from Byron, Rogers, Campbell, Moore, and other English poets. "*
MONUMENT AT KELLOGcTs GROVE.
On June 24, 1832, Black Hawk attacked Apple Kiver Fort,
fourteen miles east of Galena, Illinois, but was unable to
drive out the inmates. The next day he attacked a spy bat-
talion of one hundred and fifty men at Kellogg's Grove, six-
teen miles farther east. A detachment of volunteers relieved
the battalion, and drove off the savages, about fifteen of
whom were killed. The whites lost five men, who were
buried at various points in the grove. During the summer
of 1886 the remains of these men were collected and, with
those of five or six other victims of the war, were placed
together under the monument here represented. See " The
Black Hawk War," by Keuben G. Thwaites, Vol. XII. in
Wisconsin Historical Collections. This account of the Black
Hawk War is the most trustworthy, complete, and interesting
that has been made.
*" Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln." Edited by Allen Thorndike Rice, 1886.
JOHN REYNOLDS, GOVERNOR OP ILLINOIS 1831-1834.
After a Bteel engraving in the Governor's office, Springfield, Illinois. John Reynolds, Governor of
Illinois from 1831 to 1834, was born in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, February 26, 1788. He was
of Irish parentage. When he was six months old his parents moved to Tennessee. In 1800 they removed
to Illinois. When twenty years old, John Reynolds went to Knoxville, Tennessee, to college, where he
spent two years. He was admitted to the bar at Kaskaskia in 1812. In the war of 1812 he rendered dis-
tinguished service, earning the title of " the Old Ranger." He began the practice of law in the spring of
1814. In 1818 he was made an associate justice of the Supreme Court ; in 1820 he was elected a member of
the legislature ; and in 1830, after a stirring campaign, he was chosen Governor of Illinois. The most im-
portant event of his administration was the Black Hawk War. He was prompt in calling out the militia to
subdue the Black Hawk, and went upon the field in person. In November, 1834, just before the close of
his term as Governor, he resigned to become a member of Congress. In 1837, aided by others, he built the
first railroad in the State a short line of six miles from his coal mine in the Mississippi bluff to the bank
of the river opposite St. Louis. It was operated by horse-power. He again became a member of the legis-
lature in 1846 and 1852, during the latter term being Speaker of the House. In 1860, in his seventy-third
year, he was an anti-Douglas delegate to the Charleston convention, and received the most distinguished
attentions from the Southern delegates. After the October elections, when it became apparent that Lincoln
would be elected, he issued an address advising the support of Douglas. His sympathies were with the
South, though in 1832 he strongly supported President Jackson in the suppression of the South Carolina
nnllifiers. He died in Belleville in May, 1865. Governor Reynolds was a quaint and forceful character.
He was a man of some learning ; but in conversation (and he talked much) he rarely rose above the odd
Western vernacular of which he was BO complete a master. He was the author of two books ; one an
autobiography, and the other "The Pioneer History of Illinois."
BERRY AND LINCOLN TAKE OUT A TAVERN LICENSE AND HIRE A
CLERK. LINCOLN BEGINS TO STUDY LAW.
T was not only Burns and Shakespeare that inter-
fered with the grocery-keeping ; Lincoln had
begun seriously to read law. His first acquaint-
ance with the subject had been made when he
was a mere lad in Indiana and a copy of the
"Revised Statutes of Indiana" had fallen into
his hands. The very copy he used is still in
existence, and, fortunately, in hands where it is
safe. The book was owned by Mr. David Turn-
ham of Gentry ville, and was given in 1865 by him to Mr. Herndon,
who placed it in the Lincoln Memorial collection of Chicago. In
December, 1894, this collection was sold in Philadelphia, and the
"Statutes of Indiana" was bought by Mr. William Hoffman
Winters, Librarian of the New York Law Institute, and through
his courtesy I have been allowed to examine it. The book is
worn, the title page is gone, and a few leaves from the end are
missing. The title page of a duplicate volume which Mr. Win-
ters kindly showed me reads: "The Revised Laws of Indiana,
adopted and enacted by the General Assembly at their eighth
session. To which are prefixed the Declaration of Indepen-
dence, the Constitution of the United States, the Constitution of
the State of Indiana, and sundry other documents connected
with the Political History of the Territory and State of Indiana.
Arranged and published by authority of the General Assembly.
Cory don: Printed by Carpenter and Douglass, 1824."
We know from Dennis Hanks, from Mr. Turnham, to whom
the book belonged, and from other associates of Lincoln's at the
time, that he read the book intently and discussed its contents
intelligently. It was a remarkable volume for a thoughtful lad
whose mind had been fired already by the history of Washing-
ton ; for it opened with that wonderful document, the Declaration
of Independence, a document which became, as Mr. John G.
Nicolay says, " his political chart and inspiration." Following
the Declaration of Independence was the Constitution of the
LINCOLN'S FIRST LAW-BOOK. 167
United States, the Act of Virginia passed in 1783 by which the
" Territory North Westward of the river Ohio " was conveyed to
the United States, and the Ordinance of 1787 for governing this
territory, containing that clause on which Lincoln in the future
based many an argument on the slavery question. This article,
No. 6 of the Ordinance, reads: "There shall be neither slavery
nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in
the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly
convicted : provided always, that any person escaping into the
same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one
of the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed,
and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labour or service,
Following this was the Constitution and the Revised Laws of
Indiana, three hundred and seventy-five pages, of five hundred
words each, of statutes enough law, if thoroughly digested, to
make a respectable lawyer. When Lincoln finished this book,
as he had, probably, before he was eighteen, we have reason to
believe that he understood the principles on which the nation
was founded, how the State of Indiana came into being, and
how it was governed. His understanding of the subject was clear
and practical, and he applied it in his reading, thinking, and dis-
It was after he had read the Laws of Indiana that Lincoln
had free access to the library of his admirer, Judge John Pitcher
of Rockport, Indiana, where, undoubtedly, he examined many
law-books. But from the time he left Indiana in 1830 he had
no legal reading until one day soon after the grocery was started,
when there happened one of those trivial incidents which so
often turn the current of a life. It is best told in Lincoln's own
words.* "One day a man who was migrating to the West drove
up in front of my store with a wagon which contained his family
and household plunder. He asked me if I would buy an old
barrel for which he had no room in his wagon, and which he
said contained nothing of special value. I did not want it, but
* This incident was told by Lincoln to Mr. A. J. Conant the artist, who in 1860
painted his portrait in Springfield. Mr. Conant, in order to catch Mr. Lincoln's ani-
mated expression, had engaged him in conversation, and had questioned him about his
early life ; and it was in the course of their conversation that this incident came out.
It is to be found in a delightful and suggestive article entitled, " My Acquaintance with
Abraham Lincoln," contributed by Mr. Conant to the "Liber Scriptorum," and by his
permission quoted here.
to oblige him I bought it, and paid
him, I think, half a dollar for it.
Without further examination, I put
it away in the store, and forgot all
about it. Some time after, in over-
hauling things, I came upon the
barrel, and emptying it upon the
floor to see what it contained, I
found at the bottom of the rubbish
a complete edition of Blackstone's
Commentaries. I began to read
those famous works, and I had
plenty of time ; for during the long
summer days, when the farmers
were busy with their crops, my cus-
tomers were few and, far between.
The more I read" this he said
with unusual emphasis "the more
intensely interested I became.
Never in my whole life was my
mind so thoroughly absorbed. I
read until I devoured them."
BEEBY AND LINCOLN GET A T A VEEN
But all this was fatal to busi-
ness, and by spring it was evident
that something must be done to
stimulate the grocery sales.
On the 6th of March, 1833, the
County Commissioner's Court of
Sangamon County granted the firm
of Berry and Lincoln a license to
keep a tavern at New Salem.
It is probable that the license was
procured to enable the firm to retail
the liquors which they had in stock,
and not for keeping a tavern. In a community in which liquor-
drinking was practically universal, at a time when whiskey was
as legitimate an article of merchandise as coffee or calico, when
From a photograph made for this biography.
ELIJAH ILES, CAPTAIN OF ONE OF THE
COMPANIES IN WHICH LINCOLN SERVED
AS PRIVATE IN THE BLACK HAWK WAR.
After a painting by the late Mrs. Obed
Lewis, niece of Major lies, and owned
by Mr. Obed Lewis, Springfield, Illinois.
Elijah lies was born in Kentucky, March
28, 17%, and when young went to Mis-
souri. There he heard marvellous stories
about the Sangamon Valley, and he re-
eolved to go thither. Springfield had just
been staked out in the wilderness, and he
reached the place in time to erect the first
building a rude hut in which he kept a
store. This was in 1821. "In the early
days in Illinois," he wrote in 1883, "it was
hard to find good material for law-makers.
I was elected a State Senator in 1826, and
again for a second term. The Senate then
comprised thirteen members, and the House
twenty-five." In 1827 he was elected major
in the command of Colonel T. NcNeal, in-
tending to fight the Winnebagoes, but no
fighting occurred. In the Black Hawk
War of 1832, after his term as a private in
Captain Dawson's company had expired,
he was elected captain of a new company
of independent rangers. In this company
Lincoln refinlisted as a private. Major Hes
lived at Springfield to the end of his life.
He died September 4, 1883.
WHAT TAVERN LICENSES WERE FOR IN NEW SALEM. 169
I CERTIFY, That
in (lie CVmpariy of N$m
command, in the Regiment ttntfenariilcil l>y Col. SAMI r.t. M. Tii<<'Mi'.--<rv..Tfc' ."
man d of Generals 8. IViiiTESinr. ami If. ATKI\-*>.\. call, i I *< l : ni
the Commander-in-Chief of thft Militia of tlic State, for the jn-oifTti'-n ofcic North Wi
aijavn R t an Invasion of the Bri tilth Band of Sac nod other tril.rs of Ii>dian?,|4Ua! l. \va ; t-.i
-'? ' A. 7
A DISCHARGE TBOM SERVICE IN THE BLACK HAWK WAR SIGNED BT ABRAHAM LINCOLN AS CAPTAIN.
NOW FIRST PUBLISHED.
no family was without a jug, when the minister of the gospel
could take his "dram" without any breach of propriety, it is not
surprising that a reputable young man should have been found
selling whiskey. Liquor was sold at all groceries, but it could
not be lawfully sold in a smaller quantity than one quart. The
law, however, was not always rigidly observed, and it was the
custom of storekeepers to treat their patrons. Each of the three
groceries which Berry and Lincoln acquired had the usual sup-
ply of liquors, and it was only good business that they should
seek a way to dispose of the surplus quickly and profitably
an end which could be best accomplished by selling it over the
counter by the glass. To do this lawfully required a tavern
license ; and it is a warrantable conclusion that such was the
chief aim of Berry and Lincoln in procuring a franchise of this
character. We are fortified in this conclusion by the coincidence
that three other grocers of New Salem William Clary, Henry
Sincoe, and George Warberton were among those who took out
tavern licenses. To secure the lawful privilege of selling whis-
key by the "dram" was no doubt their purpose; for their
"taverns" were as mythical as the inn of Berry and Lincoln.
Lincoln may, of course, have desired to go into the tavern busi-
ness and so have taken out a license, but it is certain that he
170 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
never realized his ambition and that it was only in the grocery
that he sold liquor.
The license issued to Berry and Lincoln read as follows :
Ordered that William F. Berry, in the name of Berry and
Lincoln, have a license to keep a tavern in New Salem to con-
tinue 12 months from this date, and that they pay one dollar
in addition to the six dollars heretofore paid as per Treasurer's
receipt, and that they be allowed the following rates (viz.) :
French Brandy per * pt 25
Peach " 18t
Apple " 12
Holland Gin 18*
Breakfast, dinner or supper , 25
Lodging per night 12*
Horse per night 25
Single feed. . : 12*
Breakfast, dinner or supper for Stage Passengers 37*
who gave bond as required by law.
At the granting of a tavern license, the applicants therefor
were required by law to file a bond. The bond given in the case
of Berry and Lincoln was as follows :
Know all men by these presents, we, William F. Berry,
Abraham Lincoln and John Bowling Green, are held and
firmly bound unto the County Commissioners of Sangamon
County in the full sum of three hundred dollars to which pay-
ment well and truly to be made we bind ourselves, our heirs,
executors and administrators firmly by these presents, sealed
with our seal and dated this 6th day of March A.D. 1833.
Now the condition of this obligation is such that Whereas
the said Berry & Lincoln has obtained a license from the
County Commissioners Court to keep a tavern in the Town
of New Salem to continue one year. Now if the said Berry
& Lincoln shall be of good behavior and observe all the laws
of this State relative to tavern keepers then this obligation
to be void or otherwise remain in full force.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN [Seal]
WM. F. BERRY [Seal]
BOWLING GREEN [Seal]
WI^CONvSIBiK ^\ re ' sba "3 ed)
The black line indicates the
route Lincoln is supposed to
have followed with the army
as far as Whitewater, where
he was dismissed. When the
55- army started from near Otta-
wa, after the 20th of June, to
follow the Indians up Rock
River, Lincoln's battalion was
sent towards the northwest, and joined the main
army near Lake Koshkonong early in July.
Soon after, he went to Whitewater, where, on
July 10th, his battalion was disbanded, and he
returned by foot and canoe to New Salem. The
dotted line shows the route he is supposed to
have taken. The towns named on the map are
those with which Lincoln was connected either
in his legal or his political life.
92 t.V. FABQUHAR Dtl.
9} Longitude -West
AND PART OF
LINCOLN'S SUPPOSED LINE OF
MARCH IN BLACK HAWK WAR
80 40 60 60
BRADLEY * POATEt. tHSB'8, M-Y. 87
MAP OF ILLINOIS IN 1832. PREPARED SPECIALLY FOR THIS WORK.
172 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
This bond appears to have been written by the clerk of the
Commissioners' Court ; and Lincoln's name was signed by some
one other than himself, very likely by his partner Berry.
THE FIRM HIKES A CLEKK.
The license seems to have stimulated the business, for the
firm concluded to hire a clerk. The young man who secured
this position was Daniel Green Burner, son of Isaac Burner, at
whose house Lincoln for a time boarded. He is still living on a
farm near Galesburg, Illinois, and is in the eighty-second year of
his age. " The store building of Berry and Lincoln," says Mr.
Burner, "was a frame building, not very large, one story in
height, and contained two rooms. In the little back room Lincoln
had a fireplace and a bed. There is where we slept. I clerked
in the store through the winter of 1833-34, up to the 1st of
March. While I was there they had nothing for sale but liquors.
They may have had some groceries before that, but I am certain
they had none then. I used to sell whiskey over their counter
at six cents a glass and charged it, too. N. A. Garland started
a store, and Lincoln wanted Berry to ask his father for a loan,
so they could buy out Garland ; but Berry refused, saying this
was one of the last things he would think of doing."
Among the other persons yet living who were residents with
Lincoln of New Salem or its near neighborhood, are Mrs. Par-
thenia W. Hill, aged seventy-nine years, widow of Samuel Hill,
the New Salem merchant ; James McGrady Rutledge, aged
eighty-one years ; John Potter, aged eighty-seven years ; and
Thomas Watkins, aged seventy-one years all now living at
Petersburg, Illinois. Mrs. Hill, a woman of more than ordinary
intelligence, did not become a resident of New Salem until 1835,
the year in which she was married. Lincoln had then gone out
of business, but she knew much of his store. " Berry and Lin-
coln," she says, "did not keep any dry goods. They had a
grocery, and I have always understood they sold whiskey." Mr.
Rutledge, a nephew of James Rutledge the tavern-keeper, has a
vivid recollection of the store. He says: " I have been in Berry
and Lincoln's store many a time. The building was a frame one
of the few frame buildings in New Salem. There were two rooms,
and in the small back room they kept their whiskey. They had
pretty much everything, except dry goods sugar, coffee, some
FACSIMILE OF AN ELECTION RETURN WRITTEN BY LINCOLN A8 CLERK IN 1832. NOW FIRST PUBLISHED.
From the original now on file in the county clerk's office, Springfield, Illinois. The first civil office
Lincoln ever held was that of election clerk, and the return made by him, of which a facsimile is here
presented, was his first official document. All the men whose names appear on this election return are now
dead, except William McNeely, no*w residing at Petersburg. John Clary lived at Clary's Grove ; John R.
Herndon was "Row" Herndon, whose store Berry and Lincoln purchased, and at whose house Lincoln
for a time boarded ; Baxter Berry was a relative of Lincoln's partner in the grocery business, and Edmund
Greer was a school-teacher, and afterwards a justice of the peace and a surveyor ; James Rutledge was the
keeper of the Rutledge tavern and the father of Ann Rutledge ; Hugh Armstrong was one of the numerous
Armstrong family; " Uncle Jimmy " White lived on a farm five miles from New Salem, and died about
thirty years ago, in the eightieth year of his age ; William Green was father of William G. Greene, Lincoln's
associate in Offutt's store ; and as to Bowling Green, more is said elsewhere. In the following three or four
years, very few elections were held in New Salem at which Lincoln was not a clerk. It is a somewhat
singular fact that Lincoln, though clerk of this election, is not recorded as voting.
FOUR IHWISI-: COACH.
FROM .srn N(iFii-;r,D TO TIIK YEM.<W u\
S.iU'in. I'e.tersljurgh, !
. t*. ii t M ivunn, Lewisiown ',
('union, K'lio.vvilV, Mor.iii'juth, to the Yellow;
I, --live Springfield eveiy Wi -dncsday morning
t 6 o'clock, arrive nt Moniiioiith t>u Friday
venires a! G o'clof -k,nnd at tlu: Yellow B:ti,l;s j
oa thi: Mississippi, ii<;st dayat 12 ,M. Return
ihc same days to Morfmoutli, and arrive at
Springfield on TucaJay fvrnintjs at 6 o'clock.
Fiire ttirou^li to.lbe Yellow iianks, nine dol-
lars ; way pa>M-ugers sit and n fourth cents
r mile. I3aga;je, at the risk of tlie owners,
'i'iie propriei^ffl have procured good carriages
and lior<j.-.s, and careful drivers, and every at-
tention will he p;iid to the curwiorl and con- 1
coautry through which this coach ]
passes i^ well worthy the attention ol' emi- f
grants. The patronage of .the public js soli-
i-ied for this new eoterpri7..
A,,rii :jo.-:u TRACY k.lt|5?r
A STAGE-COACH ADVEIITISEMENT, 1834.
This advertisement appeared in the " Sangamo Jonrnal "
in April, 1834, and held a place in the paper through the next
three years. As the "Four Horse Coach " ran through San-
gamontown and New Salem, it doubtless had Lincoln as a pas-
senger now and then; but not often, probably, for the fare
from New Salem to Springfield was one dollar and twenty-five
cents, and walking, or riding upon a borrowed horse, must
generally have been preferred by Lincoln to so costly a mode
Watkins, being then a young boy,
country, was not a frequent visitor at
crockery, a few pairs of
shoes (not many), some
and the like. Whiskey,
of course, was a neces-
sary part of their stock.
I remember one transac-
tion in particular which
I had with them. I
sold the firm a load of
wheat, which they
turned over t o the
mill." Mr. Potter, who
remembers the morning
when Lincoln, then a
stranger on his way to
New Salem, stopped at
his father's house and
ate breakfast, knows
less about the store, but
says: "It was a grocery,
and they sold whiskey,
of course." Thomas
Watkins says that the
store contained "a
little candy, tobacco,
sugar, and coffee, and
the like ; " though Mr.
and living a mile in the
LINCOLN IS APPOINTED POSTMASTER. HE LEARNS SURVEYING, AND
IS APPOINTED DEPUTY SURVEYOR. THE FIRST WORK HE DID
IN HIS NEW PROFESSION. WHAT HE EARNED.
VEN after the license was granted, however, busi-
ness was not so brisk in Berry and Lincoln's
store that the junior partner did not welcome an
appointment as postmaster which he received in
May, 1833. The appointment of a Whig by a
Democratic administration seems to have been
made without comment. ' ' The office was too
insignificant to make his politics an objection,"
I say the autobiographical notes. The duties of the
new office were not arduous, for letters were few, and their comings
far between. At that date the mails were carried by four-horse
post-coaches from city to city, and on horseback from central
points into the country towns. The rates of postage were high.
A single-sheet letter carried thirty miles or under cost six cents ;
thirty to eighty miles, ten cents ; eighty to one hundred and
fifty miles, twelve and one-half cents ; one hundred and fifty to
four hundred miles, eighteen and one-half cents ; over four hun-
dred miles, twenty-five cents. A copy of this magazine sent
from New York to New Salem would have cost fully twenty-five
cents. The mail was irregular in coming as well as light in its
contents. Though supposed to arrive twice a week, it sometimes
happened that a fortnight or more passed without any mail.
Under these conditions the New Salem post-office was not a
A large number of the patrons of the office lived in the coun-
try many of them miles away but generally Lincoln delivered
the letters at their doors. These letters he would carefully
place in the crown of his hat, and distribute them from house to
house. Thus it was in a measure true that he kept the New
Salem post-office in his hat. The habit of carrying papers in his
hat clung to Lincoln ; for, many years later, when he was a
practising lawyer in Springfield, he apologized for failing to
BEKHY AND LINCOL)
)Vf FIRST PUBLISHED.
From a recent photograph by C. 8. McCullough, Petersburg, Illinois. The little frame store building
occupied by Berry and Lincoln at New Salem ia now standing at Petersburg, Illinois, in the rear of L. W.
Bishop's gun-shop. Its history after 18&4 is somewhat obscure, but there is no reason for doubting its
identity. According to tradition it was bought by Robert Bishop, the father of the present owner, about
1835, from Mr. Lincoln himself ; but it is difficult to reconcile this legend with the sale of the store to the
Trent brothers, unless, upon the flight of the latter from the country and the closing of the store, the building,
through the leniency of creditors, was allowed to revert to Mr. Lincoln, in which event he no doubt sold it at
the first opportunity, and applied the proceeds to the payment of the debts of the firm. When Mr. Bishop
bought the store building, he removed it to Petersburg. It is said that the removal was made in part by Lincoln
himself ; that the job was first undertaken by one of the Bales, but that, encountering some difficulty, he
called upon Lincoln to assist him, which Lincoln did. The structure was first set up adjacent to Mr. Bishop's
house, and converted into a gun-shop. Later it was removed to a place on the public square ; and soon
after the breaking out of the late war, Mr. Bishop, erecting a new building, pushed Lincoln's store into the
back yard, and there it still stands. Soon after the assassination of Mr. Lincoln, the front door was pre-
sented to some one in Springfield, and has long since been lost sight of. It is remembered by Mr. Bishop
that in this door there was an opening for the reception of letters a circumstance of importance as tend-
ing to establish the genuineness of the building, when it is remembered that Lincoln was postmaster while
he kept the store. The structure, as it stands to-day, is about eighteen feet long, twelve feet in width, and
ten feet in height. .The back room, however, has disappeared, so that the building as it stood when occupied
by Berry and Lincoln was somewhat longer. Of the original building there only remain the frame-work,
the black walnut weather-boarding on the front end, and the ceiling of sycamore boards. One entire side
has been torn away by relic-hunters. In recent years the building has been used as a sort of store-room.
Just after a big fire in Petersburg some time ago, the' city council condemned the Lincoln store building and
ordered it demolished. Under this order a portion of one side was torn down, when Mr. Bishop persuaded
the city authorities to desist, upon giving a guarantee that if Lincoln's store ever caught fire, he would be
responsible for any loss which might ensue.
LTNCOLV EARLY IN 1861. PMOBABLY THE EARLIEST .PORTRAIT SHOWING HIM WITH A BEARD.
From a photograph in the collection of H. W. Fay of De Kalb, Illinois, taken probably in
Springfield early in 1861. It is supposed to have been the first, or at least one of the first, por-
traits made of Mr. Lincoln after he began to wear a beard. As is well known, his face was
smooth until about the end of 1860 ; and when he first allowed his beard to grow, it became a
topic of newspaper comment, and even of caricature. A pretty story relating to Lincoln's adop-
tion of a beard is more or less familiar. A letter written to the authors of this Life, under date
of December 6, 1895, by Mrs. Grace Bedell Billings, tells this story, of which she herself as a little
girl was the heroine, in a most charming way :
DELPHOS, KANSAS, December 6, 1895.
In reply to your letter of recent date inquiring about the incident of my childhood and con-
nected with Mr. Lincoln, I would say that at the time of his first nomination to the Presidency I
was a child of eleven years, living with my parents in Chautauqua County, New York.
My father was an ardent Republican, and possessed of a profound admiration for the character of
HOW LINCOLN CAME TO GROW A BEARD. 179
answer a letter promptly, by explaining: "When I received
your letter I put it in my old hat, and buying a new one the next
day, the old one was set aside, and so the letter was lost sight
of for a time."
But whether the mail was delivered by the postmaster him-
the grand man who was the choice of his party. We younger children accepted his opinions with unquestion-
ing faith, and listened with great delight to the anecdotes of his life current at that time, and were particu-
larly interested in reading of the difficulties he encountered in getting an education. So much did it appeal
to our childish imaginations that we were firmly persuaded that if we could only study our lessons prone
before the glow and cheer of an open fire in a great fireplace, we too might rise to heights which now we
could never attain. My father brought to us, one day, a large poster, and my mind still holds a recollection,
of its crude, coarse work and glaring colors. About the edges were grouped in unadorned and exaggerated
ugliness the pictures of our former Presidents, and in the midst of them were the faces of " Lincoln and
Hamlin," surrounded by way of a frame with a rail fence. We are all familiar with the strong and rugged
face of Mr. Lincoln ; the deep lines about the mouth, and the eyes have much the same sorrowful expression
In all the pictures I have seen of him. I think I must have felt a certain disappointment, for I said to my
mother that he would look much nicer if he wore whiskers; and straightway gave him the benefit of my opin-
ion in a letter, describing the poster, and hinting, rather broadly, that his appearance might be improved if he
would let his whiskers grow. Not wishing to wound his feelings, I added that the rail fence around his
picture looked real pretty ! I also asked him if he had any little girl, and if so, and he was too busy to write
and tell me what he thought about it, if he would not let her do so; and ended by assuring him I meant to
try my best to induce two erring brothers of the Democratic faith to cast their votes for him. I think the
circumstance would have speedily passed from my mind but for the fact that I confided to an elder sister
that I had written to Mr. Lincoln, and had she not expressed a doubt as to whether I had addressed him
properly. To prove that I had, and was not as ignorant as she thought D^e, I rewrote the address for her
inspection: "Hon. Abraham Lincoln Esquire."
My mortification at the laughter and ridicule excited was somewhat relieved by my mother's remarking
that " there would be no mistake as to whom the letter belonged." The reply to my poor little letter came
in due time, and the following is a copy of the original, which is still in my possession.
" SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS, October 19, 1860.
" Miss GRACE BEDELL.
" My Dear little Miss : Your very agreeable letter of the 15th inst. is received. I regret the necessity
of saying I have no daughter. I have three sons ; one seventeen, one nine, and one seven years of age.
They, with their mother, constitute my whole family. As to the whiskers, having never worn any, do you
not think people would call it a piece of silly affectation if I were to begin wearing them now ? Your very
" A. LINCOLN."
Probably the frankness of the child appealed to the humorous side of his nature, for the suggestion
was acted upon. After the election, and on his journey from Springfield to Washington, he inquired of
Hon. G. W. Patterson, who was one of the party who accompanied him on that memorable trip, and who
was a resident of our town, if he knew of a family bearing the name of Bedell. Mr. Patterson replying in
the affirmative, Mr. Lincoln said he had " received a letter from a little girl called Grace Bedell, advising
me to wear whiskers, as she thought it would improve my looks." He said the character of the " letter was
BO unique, and so different from the many self-seeking and threatening ones he was daily receiving, that it
came to him as a relief and a pleasure." When the train reached Westfield, Mr. Lincoln made a short
speech from the platform of the car, and in conclusion said he had a correspondent there, relating the cir-
cumstance and giving my name, and if she were present he would like to see her. I was present, but in
the crowd had neither seen nor heard the speaker ; but a gentleman helped me forward, and Mr. Lincoln
stepped down to the platform where I stood, shook my hand, kissed me, and said : "You see I let these
whiskers grow for you, Grace." The crowd cheered, Mr. Lincoln rentered the car, and I ran quickly home,
looking at and speaking to no one, with a much dilapidated bunch of roses in my hand, which I had hoped
might be passed up to Mr. Lincoln with some other flowers which were to be presented, but which in my
confusion I had forgotten. Gentle and genial, simple and warm-hearted, how full of anxiety must have
been his life in the days which followed 1 These words seem to fitly describe him : " A man of sorrows and
acquainted with grief." Very sincerely,
GRACE BEDELL BILLINGS.
180 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
, h fa tj&j fa tt Tfcz /At*, -^
FACSIMILE OF A TAVERN LICENSE ISSUED TO BERRY AND LINCOLN MARCH 6, 1833, BY THE COUNTY COM-
MISSIONERS' COURT OF 8ANGAMON COUNTY.
The only tavern in New Salem in 1833 was that kept by James Rutledge a two-story log structure of
five rooms, standing just across the street from Berry and Lincoln's store. Here Lincoln boarded. It
seems entirely probable that he may have had an ambition to get into the tavern business, and that he and
Berry obtained a license with that end in view, possibly hoping to make satisfactory terms for the pur-
chase of the Rutledge hostelry. The tavern of sixty years ago, besides answering the purposes of the
modern hotel, was the dramshop of the frontier. The business was one which, in Illinois, the law strictly
regulated. Tavern-keepers were required to pay a license fee, and to give bonds to insure their good
behavior. Minors were not to be harbored, nor did the law permit liquor to be sold to them ; and the sale
to slaves of any liquors " or strong drink, mixed or unmixed, either within or without doors," was likewise
forbidden. Nor could the poor Indian get any " flre-water " at the tavern or the grocery. If a tavern-keeper
violated the law, two-thirds of the fine assessed against him went to the poor people of the county. The
Rutledge tavern was the only one at New Salem of which we have any authentic account. There were
other landlords besides Mr. Rutledge ; but nothing can be more certain than that Lincoln was not one of
them. The few surviving inhabitants of the vanished village, and of the country round about, have a clear
recollection of Berry and Lincoln's store ; but not one has been found with the faintest remembrance of a
tavern kept by Lincoln, or by Berry, or by both. Stage passengers jolting into New Salem sixty-two years
ago must, if Lincoln was fain-keeper, have partaken of his hospitality by the score ; but if they did, they
all died many, many years ago, or have all maintained an unaccountable and most perplexing silence.
self, or the recipient came to the store to inquire, " Anything
for me \ " it was the habit " to stop and visit awhile." He who
received a letter read it and told the contents ; if he had a news-
paper, usually the postmaster could tell him in advance what it
contained, for one of the perquisites of the early postmaster was
the privilege of reading all printed matter before delivering it.
Every day, then, Lincoln's acquaintance in New Salem, through
his position as postmaster, became more intimate.
LINCOLN MASTERS SURVEYING IN SIX WEEKS. 181
A NEW OPENING.
As the summer of 1833 went on, the condition of the store
became more and more unsatisfactory. As the position of post-
master brought in only a small revenue, Lincoln was forced to
take any odd work he could get. He helped in other stores in
the town, split rails, and looked after the mill ; but all this
yielded only a scant and uncertain support, and when in the fall
he had an opportunity to learn surveying, he accepted it eagerly.
The condition of affairs in Illinois in the thirties made a de-
mand for the services of surveyors. The immigration had been
phenomenal. There were thousands of farms to be surveyed and
thousands of corners to be located. Speculators bought up
large tracts, and mapped out cities on paper. It was years before
the first railroad was built in Illinois, and, as all inland travelling
was on horseback or in the stage-coach, each year hundreds of
miles of wagon road were opened through woods and swamps and
prairies. As the county of Sangamon was large, and eagerly
sought by immigrants, the county surveyor in 1833, one John
Calhoun, needed deputies ; but in a country so new it was no
easy matter to find men with the requisite capacity.
With Lincoln, Calhoun had little, if any, personal acquaint-
ance, for they lived twenty miles apart. Lincoln, however, had
made himself known by his meteoric race for the legislature in
1832, and Calhoun had heard of him as an honest, intelligent, and
trustworthy young man. One day he sent word to Lincoln by
Pollard Simmons, who lived in the New Salem neighborhood,
that he had decided to appoint him a deputy surveyor if he would
accept the position.
Going into the woods, Simmons found Lincoln engaged in his
old occupation of making rails. The two sat down together on a
log, and Simmons told Lincoln what Calhoun had said. It was
a surprise to Lincoln. Calhoun was a " Jackson man ; " he was
for Clay. What did he know about surveying, and why should
a Democratic official offer him a position of any kind ? He im-
mediately went to Springfield, and had a talk with Calhoun. He
would not accept the appointment, he said, unless he had the
assurance that it involved no political obligation, and that he
might continue to express his political opinions as freely and
frequently as he chose. This assurance was given. The only
difficulty then in the way was the fact that he knew absolutely
182 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
nothing of surveying. But Calhoun, of course, understood this,
and agreed that he should have time to learn.
With the promptness of action with which he always under-
took anything he had to do, he procured Flint and Gibson's
treatise on surveying, and sought Mentor Graham for help. At
a sacrifice of some time, the schoolmaster aided him to a partial
mastery of the intricate subject. Lincoln worked literally day
and night, sitting up night after night until the crowing of the
cock warned him of the approaching dawn. So hard did he
study that his friends were greatly concerned at his haggard
face. But in six weeks he had mastered all the books within
reach relating to the subject a task which, under ordinary cir-
cumstances, would hardly have been achieved in as many months.
Reporting to Calhoun for duty (greatly to the amazement of that
gentleman), he was at once assigned to the territory in the north-
west part of the county, and the first work he did of which there
is any authentic record was in January, 1834. In that month he
surveyed a piece of land for Russell Godby, dating the certifi-
cate January 14, 1834, and signing it " J. Calhoun, S. S. C., by
Lincoln was frequently employed in laying out public roads,
being selected for that purpose by the County Commissioners'
Court. So far as can be learned from the official records, the
first road he surveyed was "from Musick's Ferry, on Salt Creek,
via New Salem, to the county line in the direction of Jackson-
ville." For this he was allowed fifteen dollars for five days'
service, and two dollars and fifty cents for a plat of the new
road. The next road he surveyed, according to the records, was
that leading from Athens to Sangamon town. This was reported
to the County Commissioners' Court, November 4, 1834. But
road surveying was only a small portion of his work. He was
more frequently employed by private individuals.
SURVEYING WITH A GRAPEVINE.
According to tradition, when he first took up the business he
was too poor to buy a chain, and, instead, used a long, straight
grapevine. Probably this is a myth, though surveyors who had
experience in the early days say it may be true. The chains
commonly used at that time were made of iron. Constant use
wore away and weakened the links, and it was no unusual thing
LINCOLN'S WORK AS A SURVEYOR.
THE STATE-HOUSE AT VANDALIA, ILLINOIS. NOW USED AS A COURT-HOUSE.
Vandalia was the State capital of Illinois for twenty years, and three different State-houses
were built and occupied there. The first, a two-story frame structure, was burned down
December 9, 1823. The second was a brick building, and was erected at a cost of twelve
thousand, three hundred and eighty-one dollars and fifty cents, of which the citizens of Vandalla
contributed three thousand dollars. The agitation for the removal of the capital to Spring-
field began in 1833, and in the summer of 1836 the people of Vandalia, becoming alarmed at the
prospect of their little city's losing its prestige as the seat of the State government, tore down
the old capitol (much complaint being made about its condition), and put up a new one at a cost
of sixteen thousand dollars. The tide was too great to be checked ; but after the " Long Nine "
had secured the passage of the bill taking the capital to Springfield, the money which the Vanda-
lia people had expended was refunded. The State-house shown in this picture was the third and
last one. In it Lincoln served as a legislator. Ceasing to be a capitol July 4, 1839, it was con-
verted into a court-house for Payette County, and is still so used.
for a chain to lengthen six inches after a year's use. "And
a good grapevine," to use the words of a veteran surveyor,
" would give quite as satisfactory results as one of those old-
Lincoln's surveys had the extraordinary merit of being cor-
rect. Much of the government work had been rather indifferently
done, or the government corners had been imperfectly preserved,
and there were frequent disputes between adjacent landowners
about boundary lines. Frequently Lincoln was called upon in
such cases to find the corner in controversy. His verdict was
DANIEL GREEN BURNER, BERRY AND LINCOLN'S
Prom a recent photograph. Mr. Burner lived
at New Salem from 1829 to 1834. Lincoln for many
months lodged with his father, Isaac Burner. He
now lives on a farm near Galesburg, Illinois. Mr.
Burner is over eighty years of age.
THE REV. JOHN M. CAMERON, A NEW SALEM
FRIEND OF LINCOLN.
From a photograph in the possession of the
Hon. W. J. Orendortf of Canton, Illinois. John
M. Cameron, a Cumberland Presbyterian minister,
and a devout, sincere, and courageous man, was
held in the highest esteem by his neighbors. Yet,
according to Daniel Green Burner, Berry and Lin-
coln's clerk and the fact is mentioned merely as
illustrating a universal custom among the pioneers
" John Cameron always kept a barrel of whiskey
in the house." He was a powerful man physically,
and a typical frontiersman. He was born in Ken-
tucky in 1791, and, with his wife, moved to Illinois
in 1815. He settled in Sangamon County in 1818,
and in 1829 took up his abode in a cabin on a hill
overlooking the Sangamon River, and, with James
Rutledge, founded the town of New Salem. Ac-
cording to tradition, Lincoln for a time lived with
the Camerons. In the early thirties they moved
to Fulton County, Illinois ; then, in 1841 or 1842,
to Iowa ; and finally, in 1849, to California. In
California they lived to a ripe old age Mrs. Cam-
eron dying in 1875, and her husband following her
three years later. They had twelve children, eleven
of whom were girls. Mr. Cameron is said to have
officiated at the funeral of Ann Rutledge in. 1835.
JAMES SHORT, WHO SAVED LINCOLN S HORSE AND
SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS FROM A CREDITOR.
Prom a photograph taken at Jacksonville, Illi-
nois, about thirty years ago. James Short lived on
Sand Ridge, a few miles north of New Salem.
When Lincoln's horse and surveying instruments
were levied upon by a creditor and sold, Mr. Short
bought them in, and made Lincoln a present of them .
Lincoln, when President, made his old friend an
Indian agent in California. Mr. Short died in Iowa
many years ago. His acquaintance with Lincoln be-
gan in rather an interesting way. His sister, who
lived in New Salem, had made Lincoln a pair of
jeans trousers. The material supplied by Lincoln
was scant, and the trousers came out conspicuously
short in the legs. One day when James Short was
visiting with his sister, he pointed to a man walking
down the street, and asked, " Who is that man in the
short breeches ? " " That is Lincoln." And Mr.
Short went out and introduced himself.
A GROUP OF LINCOLN'S OLD NEIGHBORS.
SQUIRE COLEMAN SMOOT, ONE OF LINCOLN'S FIRST
Coleman Smoot was born in Virginia, Febru-
ary 13, 1794 ; removed to Kentucky when a child ;
married Kebecca Wright, March 17, 1817 ; came to
Illinois in 1831, and lived on a farm across the San-
gamon River from New Salem until his death, March
21, 1876. Lincoln met him for
the first time in Offutt's store in
1831. "Smoot," said Lincoln,
" I am disappointed in you ; I
expected to see a man as ugly as
old Probst," referring to a man
reputed to be the homeliest in
the county. " And I am disap-
pointed," replied Smoot; "I
had expected to see a good-
looking man when I saw you."
After Lincoln's election to the
legislature in 1834, he called on
Smoot and said: "I want to buy
some clothes and fix up a little,
and I want you to loan me two
hundred dollars." Theloanwas
cheerfully made, and, of course,
was subsequently repaid.
SAMUEL HILL, AT WHOSE STORE LINCOLN KEPT
From an old daguerreotype. Samuel Hill was
among the earliest inhabitants of New Salem. He
opened a general store there in partnership with John
McNeill the John McNeill who became betrothed
to Ann Rutledge, and whose real name was after-
wards discovered to be John McNamar. When
McNeill left New Salem and went East, Mr. Hill
became sole proprietor of the store. He also owned
the carding machine at New
Salem. Lincoln, after going
out of the grocery business,
made his headquarters at Sam-
uel Hill's store. There he kept
the post-office, entertained the
loungers, and on busy days
helped Mr. Hill wait on custom-
ers. Mr. Hill is said to have
once courted Ann Rutledge
F i himself, but he did not receive
the encouragement which was
bestowed upon his partner,
McNeill. In 1835 he married
Miss Parthenia W. Nance,
who still lives at Petersburg.
In 1839 he moved his store to
Petersburg, and died there in
MARY ANN RUTLEDGE, MOTHER OF ANN MATES RUTLEDGE.
From an old tintype. Mary Ann Rutledge was the wife of James Rutledge and the mother of Ann
She was born October 21, 1787, and reared in Kentucky. She lived to be ninety-one years of age, dying in
Iowa, December 26, 1878. The Rutledges left New Salem in 1833 or 1834, moving to a farm a few miles
northward. On this farm Ann Rutledge died, August 25, 1835 ; and here also, three months later (Decem-
ber 3, 1835), died her father, broken-hearted, no doubt, by the bereavement. In the following year the
family moved to Fulton County, Illinois, and some three years later to Birmingham, Iowa. Of James
Rutledge there is no portrait in existence. He was born in South Carolina, May 11, 1781. He and his
sons, John and David, served in the Black Hawk War.
A GROUP OF LINCOLN'S OLD NEIGHBORS.
186 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
invariably the end of the dispute, so general was the confidence
in his honesty and skill. Some of these old corners located by
him are still in existence. The people of Petersburg proudly
remember that they live in a town which was laid out by Lin-
coln. This he did in 1836, and it was the work of several weeks.
Lincoln's pay as a surveyor was three dollars a day, more
than he had ever before earned. Compared with the compensa-
tion for like services nowadays, it seems small enough ; but at
that time it was really princely. The governor of the State re-
ceived a salary of only one thousand dollars a year, the Secre-
tary of State six hundred dollars, and good board and lodging
could be obtained for one dollar a week. But even three dol-
lars a day did not enable him to meet all his financial obligations.
The heavy debts of the store hung over him. He was obliged to
help his father's family in Coles County. The long 'distances
he had to travel in his new employment had made it necessary
to buy a horse, and for it he had gone into debt.
"My father," says Thomas Watkins of Petersburg, "sold
Lincoln the horse, and my recollection is that Lincoln agreed to
pay him fifty dollars for it. Lincoln was a little slow in mak-
ing the payments, and after he had paid all but ten dollars, my
father, who was a high-strung man, became impatient, and sued
him for the balance. Lincoln, of course, did not deny the debt,
and raised the money and paid it. I do not often tell this," Mr.
Watkins adds, "because I have always thought there never was
such a man as Lincoln, and I have always been sorrv father sued
BOOT-JACK MADE AND USED BY LINCOLN WHEN A TOUNO MAN.
From Libby Prison Museum, Chicago, Illinois. By permission of C. F. Gunther.
FACSIMILE OF A LETTER AND HECEIPT WRITTEN BY LINCOLN WHILE POSTMASTER AT NEW SALEM.
Reproduced by permission from " Menard-Salem-Lincoln Souvenir Album," Petersburg, 1893.
BUSINESS REVERSES. LINCOLN FOR THE SECOND TIME A
CANDIDATE FOR THE LEGISLATURE. IS ELECTED.
BETWEEN his duties as deputy surveyor and postmaster, Lin-
coln had little leisure for the store, and its management passed
into the hands of Berry. The stock of groceries was on the
wane. The numerous obligations of the firm were maturing,
with no money to meet them. Both members of the firm, in the
face of such obstacles, lost courage ; and when, early in 1834,
188 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
Alexander and William Trent asked if the store was for sale, an
affirmative answer was eagerly given. A price was agreed upon,
and the sale was made. Now, neither Alexander Trent nor his
brother had any money ; but as Berry and Lincoln had bought
without money, it seemed only fair that they should be willing
to sell on the same terms. Accordingly the notes of the Trent
brothers were accepted for the purchase price, and the store was
turned over to the new owners. But about the time their notes
fell due the Trent brothers disappeared. The few groceries in
the store were seized by creditors, and the doors were closed,
never to be opened again.
Misfortunes now crowded upon Lincoln. His late partner,
Berry, soon reached the end of his wild career, and one morn-
ing a farmer from the Rock Creek neighborhood drove into JN"ew
Salem with the news that he was dead.
The appalling debt which had accumulated was thrown upon
Lincoln's shoulders. It was then too common a fashion among
men who became deluged in debt to "clear out," in the expres-
sive language of the pioneer, as the Trents had done ; but this
was not Lincoln's way. He quietly settled down among the men
he owed, and promised to pay them. For fifteen years he car-
ried this burden a load which he cheerfully and manfully bore,
but one so heavy that he habitually spoke of it as the " national
debt." Talking once of it to a friend, Lincoln said: "That debt
was the greatest obstacle I have ever met in life. I had no way
of speculating, and could not earn money except by labor ; and
to earn by labor eleven hundred dollars, besides my living,
seemed the work of a lifetime. There was, however, but one
way. I went to the creditors, and told them that if they would
let me alone, I would give them all I could earn over my living,
as fast as I could earn it." As late as 1848, so we are informed
by Mr. Herndon, Mr. Lincoln, then a member of Congress, sent
home money, saved from his salary, to be applied on these obliga-
tions. All tile notes, with interest at the high rates then prevail-
ing, were at last paid.
With a single exception, Lincoln's creditors seem to have
been lenient. One of the notes given by him came into the
hands of a Mr. Van Bergen, who, when it fell due, brought suit.
The amount of the judgment was more than Lincoln could pay,
and his personal effects were levied upon. These consisted of his
horse, saddle and bridle, and surveying instruments. James
FACSIMILE OP A LETTER WRITTEN BY LINCOLN WHILE POSTMASTER AT NEW SALEM. HITHERTO
From the collection of Mr. C. P. Gunther of Chicago.
JOHN CALHOUN, UNDER WHOM LINCOLN LEARNED SUR-
From a steel engraving in the possession of R. W. Diller,
Springfield, Illinois. John Calhoun was born in Boston,
Massachusetts, October 14, 1806. In 1830 he removed to
Springfield, Illinois, and after serving in the Black Hawk
War was appointed surveyor of Sangamon County. He was
a Democratic Representative in 1838 ; Democratic presidential
elector in 1844 ; candidate for Governor before the Democratic
State Convention in 1846 ; Mayor of Springfield in 1849, 1850,
and 1851. In 1854, President Pierce appointed him Surveyor-
General of Kansas, and he became conspicuous in Kansas
politics. He was president of the Lecompton Convention.
He died at St. Joseph, Missouri, October 25, 1859. Mr. Fred-
erick Hawn, who was his boyhood friend, and afterward
married a sister of Calhoun's wife, is now living at Leaven-
worth, Kansas, at the age of eighty- five years. In an inter-
esting letter to the writer he says : " It has been related that
Calhoun induced Lincoln to study surveying in order to be-
come his deputy. Presuming that he was ready to graduate
and receive his commission, he called on Calhoun, then liv-
ing with his father-in-law, Seth R. Cutter, on Upper Lick
Creek. After the interview was concluded, Mr. Lincoln,
about to depart, remarked : ' Calhoun, I am entirely unable
to repay you for your generosity at present. All that I have
you see on me, except a quarter of a dollar in my pocket.'
This is a family tradition. However, my wife, then a miss of
sixteen, says, while I am writing this sketch, that she dis-
tinctly remembers this interview. After Lincoln was gone
she says she and her sister, Mrs. Calhoun, commenced mak-
ing jocular remarks about his uncanny appearance, in the
presence of Calhoun, to which ' in substance he made this
rejoinder: ' For all that, he is no common man.' My wife
believes these were the exact words."
Short, a well-to-do farmer
living on Sand Ridge, a
few miles north of New
Salem, heard of the
trouble which had be-
fallen his young friend.
Without advising Lincoln
of his plans, he attended
the sale, bought in the
horse and surveying in-
struments for one hun-
dred and twenty dollars,
and turned them over to
their former owner. By
this kind act of "Uncle
Jimmy," the young sur-
veyor was enabled to con-
tinue his business.
Lincoln never forgot
a benefactor. He not only
repaid the money with
interest, but nearly thirty
years later remembered
the kindness in a most
substantial way. After
Lincoln left New Salem,
financial reverses came to
James Short, and he re-
moved to the far West
to seek his fortune anew.
Early in Lincoln's presi-
dential term he heard that
"Uncle Jimmy" was
living in California. One
day Mr. Short received a
letter from Washington.
Tearing it open, he read
the gratifying announce-
ment that he had been
commissioned an Indian
LINCOLN'S HELPFULNESS TO ALL ABOUT HIM. 191
LINCOLN'S SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS.
Photographed for this work. After Lincoln gave up surveying, he sold his instruments to John B.
Gum, afterward county surveyor of Menard County. Mr. Gum kept them until a few years ago, when
he presented the instruments to the Lincoln Monument Association, and they are now on exhibition at the
monument in Springfield, Illinois.
THE KINDNESS SHOWN LINCOLN IN NEW SALEM.
The kindness of Mr. Short was not exceptional in Lincoln's
New Salem career. When the store had "winked out," as he
put it, and the post-office had been left without headquarters,
one of his neighbors, Samuel Hill, invited the homeless post-
master into his store. There was hardly a man or woman in the
community who would not have been glad to do as much. It
was a simple recognition of Lincoln's friendliness to them. He
was what they called "obliging" a man who instinctively did
the thing which he saw would help another, no matter how
trivial or homely it was. In the home of Rowan Herndon,
where he had boarded when he first came to the town, he had
made himself loved by his care of the children. "He nearly
always had one of them around with him," says Mr. Herndon.
In the Rutledge tavern, where he afterwards lived, the land-
lord told with appreciation how, when his house was full, Lin-
coln gave up his bed, went to the store, and slept on the counter,
his pillow a web of calico. If a traveller " stuck in the mud"
in New Salem' s one street, Lincoln was always the first to help
pull out the wheel. The widows praised him because he ' ' chopped
their wood ; " the overworked, because he was always ready to
give them a lift. It was the spontaneous, unobtrusive helpful-
ness of the man's nature which endeared him to everybody, and
which inspired a general desire to do all possible in return.
192 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
There are many tales told of homely service rendered him, even
by the hard-working farmers' wives around New Salem. There
was not one of them who did not gladly " put on a plate " for
Abe Lincoln when he appeared, or did not darn or mend for
him when she knew he needed it. Hannah Armstrong, the wife of
the hero of Clary's Grove, made him one of her family. "Abe
would come out to our house," she said, " drink milk, eat mush,
cornbread and butter, bring the children candy, and rock the
cradle while I got him something to eat. . . . Has stayed at
our house two or three weeks at a time." Lincoln's pay for his
first piece of surveying came in the shape of two buckskins, and
it was Hannah who "foxed" them on his trousers.
His relations were equally friendly in the better homes of the
community ; even at the minister, the Rev. John Cameron's, he
was perfectly at home, and Mrs. Cameron was by him affection-
ately called " Aunt Polly." It was not only his kindly service
which made Lincoln loved ; it was his sympathetic comprehen-
sion of the duties and joys and sorrows and interests of the people.
Whether it was Jack Armstrong and his wrestling, Hannah and
her babies, Kelso and his fishing and poetry, the schoolmaster
and his books with one and all he was at home. He possessed
in an extraordinary degree the power of entering into the interests
of others, a power found only in reflective, unselfish natures en-
dowed with a humorous sense of human foibles, and with great
tenderness of heart. Men and women amused Lincoln, but so
long as they were sincere he loved them and sympathized with
them. He was human in the best sense of that fine word.
LINCOLN'S ACQUAINTANCE IN SANGAMON COUNTY IS
Now that the store was closed and his surveying increased,
Lincoln had an excellent opportunity to extend his acquaintance,
for he was travelling about the country. Everywhere he won
friends. The surveyor, naturally, was respected for his calling's
sake ; but the new deputy surveyor was admired for his friendly
ways, his willingness to lend a hand indoors as well as out, his
learning, his ambition, his independence. Throughout the
county he began to be regarded as "a right smart young man."
Some of his associates appear even to have comprehended his
peculiarly great character, and dimly to have foreseen a splendid
LINCOLN IN THE SUMMER OP 1860. HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED.
From a copy (made by E. A. Bromley of the Minneapolis "Journal " staff) of a photo-
graph owned by Mrs. Cyrus Aldrich, whose husband, now dead, was a Congressman from
Minnesota. We owe the photograph to the courtesy of Mr. Daniel Fish of Minneapolis. In
the summer of 1860 Mr. M. C. Tuttle, a photographer of St. Paul, wrote to Mr. Lincoln,
requesting that he have a negative taken and sent to him for local use in the campaign.
The request was granted, but the negative was broken in transit. On learning of the
accident, Mr. Lincoln sat again, and with the second negative he sent a jocular note wherein
he referred to the fact, disclosed by the picture, that in the interval he had "got a new
coat." A few copies of the picture were made by Mr. Tuttle, and distributed among the
Republican editors of the State. It has never before been reproduced. Mrs. Aldrich's
copy was presented to her by William H. Seward when he was entertained at the Aldrich
homestead (now the Minneapolis City Hospital) in September, 1860. A fine copy of this
same photograph is owned by Mr. Ward Monroe of Jersey City, New Jersey.
LINCOLN'S WAY OF CONDUCTING A CANVASS.
future. " Often," says Daniel Green Burner, Berry and Ian-
coin's clerk in the grocery, " I have heard my brother-in-law, Dr.
Duncan, say he would not be surprised if some day Abe Lincoln
got to be Governor of Illinois. Lincoln," Mr. Burner adds, "was
thought to know a little more than anybody else among the
young people. He was a good debater, and liked it. He read
much, and seemed never to forget anything."
Lincoln was fully conscious of his popularity, and it seemed
to him in 1834 that he could safely venture to try again for the
legislature. Accordingly he announced himself as a candidate,
spending much of the summer of 1834 in electioneering. It was
a repetition of what he had done in 1832, though on the larger
scale made possible by wider acquaintance. In company with
the other candidates, he rode up and down the county, making
speeches at the public sales, in shady groves, now and then in
a log schoolhouse. In his speeches he soon distinguished him-
self by the amazing candor with which he dealt with all ques-
tions, and by his curious blending of audacity and humility.
Wherever he saw a crowd of men he joined them, and he never
failed to adapt himself to their point of view in asking for votes.
If the degree of physical strength was their test for a candidate,
he was ready to lift a weight, or wrestle with the countryside
champion ; if the amount of grain a man could cradle would
recommend him, he seized the cradle and showed the swath he
could cut. The campaign was well conducted, for in August he
was elected one of the four assemblymen from Sangamon. The
LINCOLN'S SADDLE-BAGS. PHOTOGRAPHED FOB THIS BIOGRAPHY.
These saddle-bags, now in the Lincoln Monument at Springfield, are said to
have been used by Lincoln while he was a surveyor.
vote at this election stood : Dawson, 1390 ; Lincoln, 1376 ; Car-
penter, 1170 ; Stuart, 1164.
With one exception, the biographers of Lincoln have given
him the first place on the ticket in 1834. He really stood second
in order. Herndon gives the correct vote, although he is in error
in saying that the chief authority he quotes, a document owned
by Dr. A. W. French of Springfield, Illinois, is an "official
return." It is a statement, made out in Lincoln's writing, and
certified to by the county clerk, of the total number of votes
cast in the whole county for each of the several candidates for
the legislature. The official returns are on file in the Springfield
VIEW OP THE BANGAMON KIVEH MM: NEW SALEM.
Reproduced, by permission, from " Menard-Salem-Lincoln Souvenir Album," Petersburg, Illinois, 1893.
LINCOLN FINALLY DECIDES ON A LEGAL CAREER. HIS FIRST
SESSION IN THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF ILLINOIS.
did in the
votes ; it was coming to
a determination to read
law, not for pleasure, but
as a business. In his
he says : ' ' During the
canvass, in a private con-
versation, Major John T.
Stuart (one of his fellow-
Abraham to study law.
After the election he bor-
rowed books of Stuart,
took them home with
him, and went at it in
good earnest. He never
studied with anybody."
He seems to have thrown
himself into the work
with an almost impatient
ardor. As he tramped
back and forth from
Springfield, twenty miles
away, to get his law-
books, he read sometimes
forty pages or more on the
STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS.
Born at Brandon, Vermont, April 23, 1813 ; died in Chi-
cago, June 3, 1861 . Douglas learned a trade when a boy, but
abandoned it to study law. Obliged to support himself, he
went to Illinois in 1833, where he taught school until admitted
to the bar. In 1835 he was elected State Attorney-General, but
resigned at the end of the year, having been elected to the
General Assembly. In 1837 he was appointed register of the
land-office at Springfleld ; in 1838 was defeated in a contest
for Congress ; in 1840 was appointed Secretary of State ; in
1841 was elected judge of the Supreme Court of Illinois. From
1843 to 1846 he was in Congress, and for fourteen years after
was a United States Senator. The Lincoln and Douglas
debates took place in his last senatorial canvass. In 1860
Mr. Douglas was the Democratic candidate for President,
and was defeated by Lincoln. He died in 1861.
iQA x t^OJZxv r
KEPOHT OF A ROAD SURVEY BY LINCOLN. HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED.
Photographed for this biography from the original, now on file in the County Clerk's office,
Springfield, Illinois. -The survey here reported was made in pursuance of un order of the County
Commissioners' Court, September 1, 1834, in which Lincoln was designated as the surveyor.
way. Often he was seen wandering at random across the fields,
repeating aloud the points in his last reading. The subject
seemed never to be out of his mind. It was the great absorbing
interest of his life. The rule he gave twenty years later to a
LINCOLN'S ADVICE TO A YOUNG LAW STUDENT. 199
'- Cvn,>i.a,r4r &>, fS fc4e>>,
to know how
to become a
the one he
and read and
g i n with
B 1 a ckstone' s
'C o m m en-
tar i e s,' and
twice, take up
C h i tty ' s
'Evidenc e, '
' Equity,' i n
work, is the
cured a book
of legal forms,
he was soon
able to write
tracts, and all
sorts of legal
he was frequently
called upon by
his neighbors to
of this kind.
" In 1834," says
Burner, sold out
to Henry Onstott,
and he wanted
a deed written.
I knew how
was- that way,
A MAP MADE BY LIN
NOIS. HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED.
Photographed from the original for this biography. This map, which, as
here reproduced, is about one-half the size of the original, accompanied Lin-
coln's report of the survey of a part of the road between Athens and San-
gamon town. For making this map, Lincoln received fifty cents. He received
three dollars for the day he spent in relocating the road. (See report,"page 198.)
The road evidently was located "on good ground," and was "necessary and
proper," as the report says, for it is still the main travelled highway leading
into the country south of Athens, ,Menard County.
200 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
and suggested that we get him. We found him sitting on a
stump. 'All right,' said he, when informed what we wanted.
' If you will bring me a pen and ink and a piece of paper I will write
it here.' I brought him these articles, and, picking up a shingle
and putting it on his knee for a desk, he wrote out the deed."
As there was no practising lawyer nearer than Springfield,
Lincoln was often employed to act the part of advocate before
the village squire, at that time Bowling Green. He realized
that this experience was valuable, and never, so far as known,
demanded or accepted a fee for his services in these petty
Justice was sometimes administered in a summary way in
Squire Green's court. Precedents and the venerable rules of
law had little weight. The "Squire" took judicial notice of a
great many facts, often going so far as to fill, simultaneously,
the two functions of witness and court. But his decisions were
James McGrady Rutledge tells a story in which several of
Lincoln's old friends figure, and which illustrates the legal prac-
tices of New Salem. "Jack Kelso," says Mr. Rutledge, " owned,
or claimed to own, a white hog. It was also claimed by John
Ferguson. The hog had often wandered around Bowling Green's
place, and he. was somewhat acquainted with it. Ferguson sued
Kelso, and the case was tried before ' Squire ' Green. The plain-
tiff produced two witnesses who testified positively that the
hog belonged to him. Kelso had nothing to offer, save his own
" ' Are there any more witnesses ? ' inquired the court.
"He was informed that there were no more.
"'Well,' said 'Squire' Green, 'the two witnesses we have
heard have sworn to a lie. I know this shoat, and I know
it belongs to Jack Kelso. I therefore decide this case in his
An extract from the record of the County Commissioners'
Court illustrates the nature of the cases that came before the
justice of the peace in Lincoln's day. It also shows the price
put upon the privilege of working on Sunday, in 1832 :
"JANUARY 29, 1832. Alexander Gibson found guilty of Sabbath-breaking,
and fined \2\ cents. Fine paid into court.
" (Signed) EDWARD ROBINSON, J. P."
DISTRUST OF YANKEES IN EARLY ILLINOIS. 201
THE ILLINOIS ASSEMBLY OF 1834.
The session of the ninth Assembly began December 1, 1834,
and Lincoln went to the capital, then Vandalia, seven by -five
miles southeast of New Salem, on the Kaskaskia River, in time
for the opening. Yandalia was a town which had been called
into existence in 1820 especially to give the State government
an abiding-place. Its very name had been chosen, it is said,
because it "sounded well" for a State capital. As the tradi-
tion goes, while the commissioners were debating what they
should call the town they were making, a wag suggested that
it be named Vandalia, in honor of the Vandals, a tribe of In-
dians which, said he, had once lived on the borders of the Kas-
kaskia ; this, he argued, would conserve a local tradition while
giving a euphonious title. The commissioners, pleased with
so good a suggestion, adopted the name. When Lincoln first
went to Vandalia it was a town of about eight hundred inhabi-
tants ; its noteworthy features, according to Peck's "Gazetteer"
of Illinois for 1834, being a brick court-house, a two-story brick
edifice "used by State officers," "a neat framed house of wor-
ship for the Presbyterian Society, with a cupola and bell," "a
framed meeting-house for the Methodist Society," three taverns,
several stores, five lawyers, four physicians, a land- office, and
two newspapers. It was a much larger town than Lincoln had
ever lived in before, though he was familiar with Springfield,
then twice as large as Vandalia, and he had seen the cities of
The Assembly which he entered was composed of eighty-one
members twenty-six senators and fifty-five representatives. As
a rule, these men were of Kentucky, Tennessee, or Virginia
origin, with here and there a Frenchman. There were but few
Eastern men, for there was still a strong prejudice in the State
against Yankees. The close bargains and superior airs of the
emigrants from New England contrasted so unpleasantly with
the open-handed hospitality and the easy ways of the Southern-
ers and French, that a pioneer's prospects were blasted at the
start if he acted like a Yankee. A history of Illinois in 1837,
published, evidently, to "boom" the State, cautioned the emi-
grant that if he began his life in Illinois by "affecting superior
intelligence and virtue, and catechizing the people for their
habits of plainness and simplicity, and their apparent want of
SURVEY OF t^ SECTION OF LAND BY LINCOLN. NOW
From the original, in the possession of Z. A. Enos, Springfield, Illinois. "The Sangamon River runs
through this section," says Mr. Enos, himself a veteran surveyor, " and the section lines in the government sur-
vey were not extended across, but closed on the river, without any connection being made between the opposite
marginal corners or lines ; and though shown on the government plats as being continuous straight east or
west lines across the river, they were, in fact, surveyed by the government surveyor as represented by Mr. Lin-
DESCRIPTION OF THE EARLY ILLINOIS LEGISLATOR. 203
those things which he
to comfort," he must
expect to be forever
marked as "a Yankee,"
and to have his pros-
defeated. A "hard-
shell" Baptist preacher
of this date showed the
feeling of the people
when he said, in preach-
ing of the richness of the
grace of the Lord : "It
tuks in the isles of the
sea and the uttermust
part of the y e t h . It
embraces the Esqui-
maux and the Hotten-
tots, and some, my dear
brethering, go so far as
to suppose that it tuks
in the poor benighted
Yankees ; but / don't
go tliatfur.' 1 ' 1 When it
came to an election of
legislators, many of the
people "didn't go that
There was a pre-
ponderance of jean suits
like Lincoln's in the
Assembly, and there
were occasional coon-
skin caps and buckskin
more than one member
showed a studied garb
and a courtly manner.
Some of the best blood
of the South went into
coin's plat." This plat is also interesting as " showing," as Mr.
Enos says, " how Illinois lands were valued at that date, as indi-
cated by the value of the several lots in the school section, as de-
termined by the trustees, and marked by them on each tract, and
at those estimated values the lots were then subject to purchase."
204 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
the making of Illinois, and it showed itself from the first in the
Assembly. The surroundings of the legislators were quite as
simple as the attire of the plainest of them. The court-house,
in good old Colonial style, with square pillars and belfry, was
finished with wooden desks and benches. The State furnished
her law-makers few perquisites beyond their three dollars a day.
A cork inkstand, a certain number of quills, and a limited
amount of stationery were all the extras an Illinois legislator
in 1834 got from his position. Scarcely more could be expected
from a State whose revenues from December 1, 1834, to Decem-
ber 1, 1836, were only about one hundred and twenty-five thou-
sand dollars, with expenditures during the same period amount-
ing to less than one hundred and sixty-five thousand dollars.
Lincoln thought little of these things, no doubt. To him the
absorbing interest was the men he met. To get acquainted with
them, measure them, compare himself with them, and discover
wherein they were his superiors and what he could do to make
good his deficiency this was his chief occupation. The men he
met were good subjects for such study. Among them were Will-
iam L. D. Ewing, Jesse K. Dubois, Stephen T. Logan, Thomas
Ford, and Governor Duncan men destined to play large parts
in the history of the State. One whom he met that winter in
Vandalia was destined to play a great part in the history of the
nation the Democratic candidate for the office of State attorney
for the first judicial district of Illinois a man four years younger
than Lincoln (he was only twenty-one at the time) ; a new-comer,
too, in the State, having arrived about a year before, under no
very promising auspices either, for he had only thirty-seven
cents in his pockets, and no position in view ; but a man of
metal, it was easy to see, for already he had risen so high in the
district where he had settled, that he dared contest the office of
State attorney with John J. Hardin, one of the most successful
lawyers of the State. This young man was Stephen A. Douglas.
He had come to Vandalia from Morgan County to conduct his
campaign, and Lincoln met him first in the halls of the old court-
house, where he and his friends carried on with success their
contest against Hardin.
The ninth Assembly gathered in a more hopeful and ambitious
mood than any of its predecessors. Illinois was feeling well.
The State was free from debt. The Black Hawk War had stim-
ulated the people greatly, for it had brought a large amount of
LINCOLN IN 1861. NOW FIRST ITBLISHED.
From a photograph loaned by Mr. Frank A. Brown of Minneapolis, Min-
nesota. This beautiful photograph was taken, probably early in 1861, by
Alexander Hesler of Chicago. It was used by Leonard W. Volk, the sculptor,
in his studies of Lincoln.
206 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
money into circulation. In fact, the greater portion of the eight
to ten million dollars the war had cost, had been circulated among
the Illinois volunteers. Immigration, too, was increasing at a
bewildering rate. In 1835 the census showed a population of
269,974. Between 1830 and 1835 two-fifths of this number had
come in. In the northeast, Chicago had begun to rise. "Even
for Western towns " its growth had been unusually rapid, declared
Peck's " Gazetteer" of 1834 ; the harbor building there, the pro-
posed Michigan and Illinois canal, the rise in town lots all prom-
ised to the State a great metropolis. To meet the rising tide of
prosperity, the legislators of 1834 felt that they must devise some
worthy scheme, so they chartered a new State bank, with a capi-
tal of one million five hundred thousand dollars, and revived a
bank which had broken twelve years before, granting it a charter
of three hundred thousand dollars. There was no surplus money
in the State to supply the capital ; there were no trained bankers
to guide the concern ; there was no clear notion of how it was
all to be done ; but a banking capital of one million eight hun-
dred thousand dollars would be a good thing in the State, they
were sure ; and if the East could be made to believe in Illinois
as much as her legislators believed in her, the stocks would go ;
and so the banks were chartered.
But even more important to the State than banks was a high-
way. For thirteen years plans of the Illinois and Michigan canal
had been constantly before the Assembly. Surveys had been
ordered, estimates reported, the advantages extolled, but noth-
ing had been done. Now, however, the Assembly, flushed by
the first thrill of the coming " boom," decided to authorize a loan
of a half-million on the credit of the State. Lincoln favored both
these measures. He did not, however, do anything especially
noteworthy for either of the bills, nor was the record he made in
other directions at all remarkable. He was placed on the com-
mittee of public accounts and expenditures, and attended meet-
ings with great fidelity. His first act as a member was to give
notice that he would ask leave to introduce a bill limiting the
jurisdiction of justices of the peace a measure which he suc-
ceeded in carrying through. He followed this by a motion to
change the rules, so that it should not be in order to offer amend-
ments to any bill after the third reading, which was not agreed
to ; though the same rule, in effect, was adopted some years
later, and is to this day in force in both branches of the Illinois
/^^cxJ i t - :/ tiS>
S x ' . -^ / '< -
MAP OF ALBANY, ILLINOIS. MADE BY LINCOLN. HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED.
The original of this plat is owned by Mr. J. Davidson Burns of Kalamazoo, Michigan, to whose courtesy we owe the
right of reproduction.
208 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
Assembly. He next made a motion to take from the table a
report which had been submitted by his committee, which met a
like fate. His first resolution, relating to a State revenue to be
derived from the sales of the public lands, was denied a refer-
ence, and laid upon the table. Neither as a speaker nor as an
organizer did he make any especial impression on the body.
LINCOLN'S FIRST ACQUAINTANCE WITH ANN RUTLEDGE. THE STORY
OF THEIR LOVE.
N the spring of 1835 the young representative from
Sangamon returned to New Salem to take up his
duties as postmaster and deputy surveyor, and
to resume his law studies. He exchanged his
rather exalted position for the humbler one, with
a light heart. New Salem held all that was dear-
est in the world to him at that moment, and he
went back to the poor little town with a hope,
which he had once supposed honor forbade his
acknowledging even to himself, glowing warmly in his heart.
He loved a young girl of the village, and now for the first time,
though he had known her since he first came to New Salem, was
he free to tell his love.
One of the most prominent families of the settlement in 1831,
when Lincoln first appeared there, was that of James Rutledge.
The head of the house was one of the founders of New Salem,
and at that time the keeper of the village tavern. He was a
high-minded man. of a warm and generous nature, and had the
universal respect of the community. He was a South Carolinian
by birth, but had lived many years in Kentucky before coming
to Illinois. Rutledge came of a distinguished family : one of his
ancestors signed the Declaration of Independence ; another was
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States by
appointment of Washington, and another was a conspicuous
leader in the American Congress.
The third of the nine children in the Rutledge household was
a daughter, Ann Mayes, born in Kentucky, January 7, 1813.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN IN 1858.
From an ambrotype owned by Miss Hattie Gilmer of Pittsfleld, Illinois. The Gilmer ambrotype was taken by C. Jack-
i, in Pittefield, October 1, 1858, during the Lincoln and Douglas campaign, immediately after Lincoln had made a speech in
public square. Lincoln was the guest of his friend D. II. Gilmer, a lawyer. He sat for two pictures, one of which was
shetl for Mr. Gilmer. The other picture is supposed to have been destroyed.
ANN RUTLEDGE'S BEAUTY AND GENTLENESS. 211
When Lincoln first met her she was nineteen years old, and as
fresh as a flower. Many of those who knew her at that time
have left tributes to her beauty and gentleness, and even to-day
there are those living who talk of her with moistened eyes and
softened tones. "She was a beautiful girl," says her cousin,
James McGrady Rutledge, "and as bright as she was pretty.
She was well educated for that early day, a good conversation-
alist, and always gentle and cheerful ; a girl whose company
people liked." So fair a maid was not, of course, without
suitors. The most determined of those who sought her hand was
one John McNeill, a young man who had arrived in New Salem
from New York soon after
the founding of the town.
Nothing was known of his
antecedents, and no ques-
tions were asked. He was
understood to be merely one
of the thousands who had
come West in search of for-
tune. That he was intelli-
gent, industrious, and frugal,
with a good head for busi-
ness, was at once apparent ;
for he and Samuel Hill
opened a general store, and
they soon doubled their
capital, and their business
continued to grow remark-
ably. In four years from
his first appearance in the settlement, besides having a half-
interest in the store, McNeill owned a large farm a few miles
north of New Salem. His neighbors believed him to be worth
about twelve thousand dollars.
TWO NEW SALEM CHAIRS.
Now owned by Mrs. Samuel Hill, Petersburg, Illinois.
ANN RTITLEDGE'S ENGAGEMENT TO JOHN MCNEILL.
John McNeill was an unmarried man at least so he represented
himself to be and very soon after becoming a resident of New
Salem he formed the acquaintance of Ann Rutledge, then a girl
of seventeen. It was a case of love at first sight, and the two
soon became engaged, in spite of the rivalry of Samuel Hill,
McNeilPs partner. But
Ann was as yet only a
young girl ; and it was
thought very sensible in
her, and very gracious and
considerate in her lover,
that both acquiesced in
the wishes of Ann's par-
ents that, for some time,
at least, the marriage be
Such was the situation
when Lincoln appeared in
New Salem. He naturally
soon became acquainted
with the girl. She was a
pupil in Mentor Graham' s
school, where he fre-
q u e n 1 1 y visited, and
rumor says that he first
met her there. However
that may be, it is certain
that in the latter part of
1832 he went to board at
the Rutledge tavern, and
there was thrown daily
into her company.
During the next year,
1833, John McNeill, in
spite of his fair prospects,
became restless and dis-
contented. He wanted to
see his people, he said, and
before the end of the year
he had decided to go East
for a visit. To secure per-
fect freedom from his
business while gone, he
sold out his interest in the
store. To Ann he said
that he hoped to bring
MAJOR JOHN T. STUART, THE MAN WHO INDUCED LIN-
COLN TO STUDY LAW.
After a photograph owned by his widow, Mary Nash
Stuart, Springfield, Illinois. John T. Stuart was born in
Fayette County, Kentucky, seven miles east of Lexington,
November 10, 1807. He was a son of Robert Stuart, a Pres-
byterian minister, and professor of languages in Transyl-
vania University. His mother's maiden name was Hannah
Todd. She was a daughter of General Lev! Todd, and a
sister of Robert S. Todd, the father of Mrs. Abraham
Lincoln. John T. Stuart graduated at Center College, Dan-
ville, Kentucky, in 1826, and after studying law hi Rich-
mond, Kentucky, he went to Springfield, Illinois. This was
in 1828. Here he at once began the practice of the law. In
the Black Hawk War he was major of the battalion in which
Lincoln commanded a company, and here his acquaintance
with Lincoln seems to have been formed. In 1832 he was
elected a representative in the State legislature, and was
reflected in 1834. In 1836 he was an unsuccessful Whig
candidate for Congress. Two years later he was again a
candidate, and this time was elected, defeating Stephen A.
Douglas. He was reflected in 1840. Lincoln, upon his re-
moval to Springfield in the spring of 1837, became Major
Stuart's law partner. The partnership continued until April
14, 1841, when Lincoln became the partner of Judge Stephen
T. Logan. For many years Major Stuart was the senior
member of the law firm of Stuart, Edwards and Brown, the
two other members being Benjamin S. Edwards and Chris-
topher C. Brown. In 1837, at Jacksonville, Illinois, he was
married to Mary V. Nash, who is still living. Major Stuart
died in 1885.
DISAPPEARANCE OF ANN RUTLEDGE'S FIRST LOVER. 213
back his father and mother, and to place them on his farm.
"This duty done," was his farewell word, "yon and I will be
married." In the spring of 1834 McNeill started East. The
jonrney overland by foot and horse was in those days a trying
one, and on the way McNeill fell ill with chills and fever. It
was late in the summer before he reached his home and wrote
back to Ann, explaining his silence. The long wait had been
a severe strain on the girl, and Lincoln had watched her anxiety
with softened heart. It was to him, the New Salem postmaster,
that she came to inquire for letters. It was to him she entrusted
those she sent. In a w r ay the postmaster must have become the
girl's confidant ; and his tender heart, which never could resist
suffering, must have been deeply touched. After the long silence
was broken, and McNiell's first letter of explanation came, the
cause of anxiety seemed removed ; but, strangely enough, other
letters followed only at long intervals, and finally they ceased
altogether. Then it was that the young girl told her friends a
secret which McNiell had confided to her before leaving New
He had told her what she had never even suspected before,
that John McNeill was
not his real name, but
that it was John Mc-
Namar. Shortly before
he came to New Salem,
he explained, his father
had suffered a disastrous
failure in business. He
was the oldest son ; and
in the hope of retrieving
the lost fortune, he re-
solved to go West, ex-
pecting to return in a
few years and share his
riches with the rest of
the family. Anticipat-
ing parental opposition,
he ran away from home ;
and, being sure that he
could never accumulate A WAYSIDE WELL NEAR NEW 8ALEM KNOWN A9
anything With SO niimer- BUTI-EDGE'S WELL."
214 ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
ous a family to support, he endeavored to lose himself by a
change of name. All this Ann had believed and not repeated ;
but now, worn out by waiting, she took her secret to her friends.
With few exceptions, they pronounced the story a fabrication
and McNamar an impostor. Why had he worn this mask ? His
excuse seemed flimsy. At best, they declared, he was a mere
adventurer ; and was it not more probable that he was a fugitive
from justice a thief, a swindler, or a murderer? And who knew
how many wives he might have ? With all New Salem declaring
John McNamar false, Ann Rutledge could hardly be blamed for
imagining that he either was dead or that he had ceased to love
ANN'S ENGAGEMENT TO LINCOLN.
It was not until McNeill, or McNamar, had been gone many
months, and gossip had become offensive, that Lincoln ventured
to show his love for Ann, and then it was a long time before the
girl would listen to his suit. Convinced at last, however, that
her former lover had deserted her, she yielded to Lincoln's wishes,
and promised, in the spring of 1835, soon after Lincoln's return
from Vandalia, to become his wife. But Lincoln had nothing on
which to support a family indeed, he found it no trifling task
to support himself. As for Ann, she was anxious to go to school
another year. It was decided that in the autumn she should go
with her brother to Jacksonville and spend the winter there in
an academy. Lincoln was to devote himself to his law studies ;
and the next spring, when she returned from school and he was
a member of the bar, they were to be married.
A happy spring and summer followed. New Salem took a
cordial interest in the two lovers, and presaged a happy life for
them ; and all would undoubtedly have gone well if the young
girl could have dismissed the haunting memory of her old lover.
The possibility that she had wronged him ; that he might reap-
pear ; that he loved her still, though she now loved another ; that
perhaps she had done wrong a torturing conflict of memory,
love, conscience, doubt, and morbidness lay like a shadow across
her happiness, and wore upon her until she fell ill. Gradually
her condition became hopeless ; and Lincoln, who had been shut
from her, was sent for. The lovers passed an hour alone in an
anguished parting, and soon after, on August 25, 1835, Ann
LINCOLN IN 1858.
After a photograph owned by Mrs. Harriet Chapman of Charleston, Illinois. Mrs. Chapman is a grand-
daughter of Sarah Bush Lincoln, Lincoln's step-mother. Her son, Mr. R. N. Chapman of Charleston,
Illinois, writes us : " In 1858 Lincoln and Douglas had a series of joint debates in this State, and this city
was one place of meeting. Mr. Lincoln's step-mother was making her home with my father and mother at
that time. Mr. Lincoln stopped at our house, and as he was going away my mother said to him : ' Uncle
Abe, I want a picture of you.' He replied, ' Well, Harriet, when I get home I will have one taken for you
and send it to you.' Soon after, mother received the photograph, which she still has, already framed, from
Springfield, Illinois, with a letter from Mr. Lincoln, in which he said, 'This is not a very good-looking
picture, but it's the best that could be produced from the poor subject.' He also said that he had it taken
solely for my mother. The photograph is still in its original frame, and I am sure is the most perfect and
best picture of Lincoln in existence. We suppose it must have been taken in Springfield, Illinois."
FAC8IMILE OP A LEGAL OPINION BY LINCOLN. NOW FIRST PUBLISHED.
From the original, in the possession of Z. A. Enos, Springfield, Illinois. In a convention of surveyors, held at Spring-
field in 1859, the question was much discussed whether the act of Congress of February 11, 1805. relating to surveys, was
intended to control all future surveys and subdivisions of the government lands. It was decided to submit the question
to a lawyer for an opinion. Mr. Lincoln was selected, for the reason not only that he was a lawyer of recognized ability,
but also because he had been a practical surveyor. A committee having waited upon him, he wrote out the opinion of
which a facsimile is here presented. Mr. Enos, who holds the original document, was an active participant in the con-
vention to which this opinion was rendered.
LINCOLN'S GRIEF AT ANN RUTLEDGE' S DEATH. 217
The death of Ann Rutledge
plunged Lincoln into the deepest
gloom. That abiding melan-
choly, that painful sense of the
incompleteness of life, which
had been his mother's dowry to
him, asserted itself. It filled
and darkened his mind and his
imagination, tortured him with
its black pictures. One stormy
night he was sitting beside Will-
iam Greene, his head bowed on
his hand, while tears trickled
through his fingers ; his friend
begged him to control his sorrow,
to try to forget. "I cannot,"
moaned Lincoln ; "the thought
of the snow and rain on her grave
fills me with indescribable grief."
He was found walking alone
by the river and through the
woods, muttering strange things
to himself. He seemed to his
friends to be in the shadow of mad-
ness. They kept a close watch
over him ; and at last Bowling
Green, one of the most devoted
friends Lincoln then had, took
him home to his little log cabin,
half a mile north of New Salem,
under the brow of a big bluff.
Here, under the loving care of
Green and his good wife Nancy,
Lincoln remained until he was once more master of himself.
But though he had regained self-control, his grief was deep and
bitter. Ann Rutledge was buried in Concord cemetery, a country
burying-ground seven miles northwest of New Salem. To this
lonely spot Lincoln frequently journeyed to weep over her grave.
" My heart is buried there," he said to one of his friends.
When McNamar returned (for McNamar's story was true, and,
two months after Ann Rutledge died, he drove into New Salem,
JAMES MoGKADT BUTLEDGK, A COUSIN OF ANN
James McGrady Rutledge, eon of William
Rutledge, is now past eighty-one years of age,
having been born in Kentucky, September 29,
1814. He is now a resident of Petersburg. He is
active and remarkably free from the infirmities of
age. When a boy, with a yoke of oxen, he hauled
the logs for the construction of the mill and the
dam at New Salem and for some of the cabins of
the village. "'Rile' Clary and I carried chain
for Lincoln many a time," he says; "'Rile 1
going foremost and I following. We became ac-
customed to it and Lincoln preferred us." Ann
Rutledge and her cousin were nearly the same age,
and being thoroughly congenial, she made a con-
fidant of him. They were much in each other's
company, and Ann often talked to him of Lin-
coln. " Everybody was happy with Ann," says
Mr. Rutledge. " She was of a cheerful disposi-
tion, seeming to enjoy life, and helping others
with his widowed mother and his brothers and sisters in the
"prairie schooner" beside him) and learned of Ann's death, he
" saw Lincoln at the post- office," as he afterward said, and " he
seemed desolate and sorely distressed." On himself, apparently,
her death produced no deep impression. Within a year he mar-
ried another woman ; and his conduct toward Ann Rutledge is
to this day a mystery.
Many years ago a sister of Ann Rutledge, Mrs. Jeane Berry,
told what she knew of Ann's love affairs ; and her statement
has been preserved in a diary kept by the Rev. R. D. Miller, now
Superintendent of Schools of Menard County, with whom she
had the conversation. She declared that Ann's " whole soul
seemed wrapped up in Lincoln," and that they "would have
been married in the fall or early winter" if Ann had lived.
"After Ann died," said Mrs. Berry, "I remember that it was
common talk about how sad Lincoln was ; and I remember my-
self how sad he looked. They told me that every time he was
in the neighborhood after she died, he would go alone to her
grave and sit there in silence for hours.' '
In later life, when his sorrow had become a memory, he told
a friend who questioned him : "I really and truly loved the girl
and think often of her now." There was a pause, and then he
added: " And I have loved the name of Rutledge to this day."
ABRAHAM LINCOLN AT TWENTY-SIX YEARS OP AGE.
HEN the death of Ann Rutledge came upon
Lincoln, for a time threatening to destroy
his ambition and blast his life, he was in
a most encouraging position. Master of a
profession in which he had an abundance
of work and earned fair wages ; hopeful
of being admitted in a few months to the
bar ; a member of the State Assembly, with
every reason to believe that, if he desired
it, his constituency would return him few men are as far
advanced at twenty-six as was Abraham Lincoln.
LINCOLN'S INTELLECTUAL POWER AT TWENTY-SIX. 219
CONCORD CEMETERY. WHEKE ANN KUTLEDGE WAS BURIED.
From a photograph by C. S. McCullough, Petersburg, Illinois. Concord cemetery lies
seven miles northwest of the old town of New Salem, in a secluded place, surrounded by woods
and pastures, away from the world. In this lonely spot Ann Eutledge was at first laid to rest.
Thither Lincoln is said often to have gone' alone, and "sat in silence for hours at a time ; " and
it was to Ann Rutledge's grave here that he pointed and said: "There my heart lies buried."
The old cemetery suffered the melancholy fate of New Salem. It became a neglected, deserted
spot. The graves were lost in weeds, and a heavy growth of trees kept out the sun and filled
the place with gloom. A dozen years ago this picture was taken. It was a blustery day in the
autumn, and the weeds and trees were swaying before a furious gale. No other picture of the
place, taken while Ann Rutledge was buried there, is known to be in existence. A picture of a cem-
etery, with the name of Ann Rutledge on a high, flat tombstone, has been published in two or
three books; but it is not genuine, the "stone" being nothing more than a board improvised
for the occasion. The grave of Ann Rutledge was never honored with a Btone until the body
was taken up in 1890 and removed to Oakland cemetery, a mile southwest of Petersburg.
Intellectually he was far better equipped than he believed
himself to be, better than he has ordinarily been credited with
being. True, he had had no conventional college training, but he
had by his own efforts attained the chief result of all preparatory
study, the ability to take hold of a subject and assimilate it.
The fact that in six weeks he had acquired enough of the science
of surveying to enable him to serve as deputy surveyor shows
how well trained his mind was. The power to grasp a large sub-
ject quickly and fully is never
an accident. The nights Lin-
coln spent in Gentryville, lying
on the floor in front of the fire,
figuring on the fire-shovel ; the
hours he passed in poring over
the Statutes of Indiana ; the
days he wrestled with Kirk-
ham's Grammar, alone made
the mastery of Flint and Gibson
possible. His struggle with
Flint and Gibson made easier
the volumes he borrowed from
Major Stuart's law library.
Lincoln had a mental trait
which explains his rapid
growth in mastering subjects
seeing clearly was essential to
him. He was unable to put a
question aside until he under-
stood it. It pursued him, irri-
tated him, until solved. Even
in his Gentryville days his com-
rades noted that he was con-
stantly searching for reasons
and that he " explained so
clearly." This characteristic
became stronger with years. He was unwilling to pronounce
himself on any subject until he understood it, and he could not
let it alone until he had reached a conclusion which satisfied
This seeing clearly became a splendid force in Lincoln ; because
when he once had reached a conclusion he had the honesty of
soul to suit his actions to it. No consideration could induce him
to abandon the course his reason told him was logical. Not that
he was obstinate, and having taken a position, would not change
it if he saw on further study that he was wrong. In his first
circular to the people of Sangamon County is this characteristic
passage : "Upon the subjects I have treated, I have spoken as I
thought. I may be wrong in any or all of them ; but, holding it
a sound maxim that it is better only sometimes to be right than
JOSEPH DUNCAN, GOVERNOR OF ILLINOIS DURING
LINCOLN'S FIRST TERM IN THE LEGISLATURE.
Joseph Duncan, Governor of Illinois from 1834
to 1838, was born in Kentucky in 17&4. The eon of
an officer of the regular army, he at nineteen be-
came a soldier in the war of 1812, and did gallant
sen-ice. He removed to Illinois in 1818, and soon
became prominent in the State, serving as a major-
general of militia, a State Senator, and from 1826
to 1834 as a member of Congress, resigning from
Congress to take the office of Governor. He was at
first a Democrat, but afterwards became a Whig.
He was a man of the highest character and public
spirit. He died in 1844.
LINCOLN'S POWER OF IMMEDIATE ACTION.
at all times to be wrong,
so soon as I discover my
opinions to be erroneous,
I shall be ready to re-
Joined to these strong
mental and moral quali-
ties was that power of
immediate action which
so often explains why one
man succeeds in life while
another of equal intelli-
gence and uprightness
fails. As soon as Lincoln
saw a thing to do he did
it. He wants to know ;
here is a book it may be
a biography, a volume of
dry statutes, a collection
of verse ; no matter, he
reads and ponders it until
he has absorbed all it has
for him. He is eager to
see the world ; a man offers him a position as a
DR. FRANCIS REGNIER.
From a painting owned by his daughter, Mrs. N. W.
Branson, Petersburg, Illinois. Dr. Regnier was one of the
New Salem physicians. He lived in the place until most of
its inhabitants had deserted it, and then removed to Peters-
burg. He was for many years a leading citizen in the com-
munity. He died in 1858.
; hand" on a
Mississippi flatboat ; he takes it without a moment's hesitation
over the toil and exposure it demands. John Calhoun is willing
to make him a deputy surveyor ; he knows nothing of the
science ; in six weeks he has learned enough to begin his labors.
Sangamon County must have representatives ; why not he ? And
his circular goes out. Ambition alone will not explain this power
of instantaneous action. It comes largely from that active imagi-
nation which, when a new relation or position opens, seizes on all
its possibilities and from them creates a situation so real that one
enters with confidence upon what seems to the unimaginative the
rashest undertaking. Lincoln saw the possibilities in things, and
immediately appropriated them.
But the position he filled in Sangamon County in 1835 was
not all due to these qualities ; much was due to his personal
charm. By all accounts he was big, awkward, ill-clad, shy ; yet
his sterling honor, his unselfish nature, his heart of the true
gentleman, inspired respect and confidence. Men might laugh
GRAVE OF ANN KUTLEDGE IN OAKLAND CEMETERY.
From a photograph made for this work by C. S. McCullough, Petersburg, Illinois, in September, 1895.
On the 15th of May, 1890, the remains of Ann Rutledge were removed from the long-neglected grave in the
Concord graveyard to a new and picturesque burying-ground a mile southwest of Petersburg, called Oak-
land cemetery. The old grave, though marked by no stone, was easily identified from the fact that Ann
was buried by the side of her younger brother, David, who died in 1842, upon the threshold of what
promised to be a brilliant career as a lawyer. The removal was made by Samuel Montgomery, a prominent
business man of Petersburg. He was accompanied to the grave by James McGrady Rutledge and a few
others, who located the grave beyond a doubt. In the new cemetery, the grave occupies a place somewhat
apart from others. A young maple tree is growing beside it, and it is marked by an unpolished granite
stone bearing the simple inscription, " Ann Rutledge."
at his first appearance, but they were not long in recognizing the
real superiority of his nature.
Such was Abraham Lincoln at twenty-six, when the tragic
death of Ann Rutledge made all that he had attained, all that
he had planned, seem fruitless and empty. He was too sincere
and just, too brave a man, to allow a great sorrow permanently
to interfere with his activities. He rallied his forces and returned
to his law, his surveying, his politics. He brought to his work a
new power, that insight and patience which only a great sorrow
MEMORANDA FOR LINCOLN'S GENEALOGY.
Prepared especially for this volume by the Hon. L. E. Chittenden, Register of the
Treasury under Lincoln, and author of " President Lincoln," etc.
THE Hon. SOLOMON LINCOLN of Hingham, Massachusetts, in an article on
the " Lincoln Families of Massachusetts," in the " New England Historical and
Genealogical Register," 1865, Volume XIX., page 357, says : "We now come
to the family of Samuel Lincoln, in which we find more names than in any
other, which leads to the belief that it is in this direction that we must look for
the ancestor of Abraham Lincoln. To this family belong the honored names
of Levi Lincoln, Attorney-General of the United States, Lieutenant and act-
ing Governor of Massachusetts after the death of Governor Sullivan; also his
two distinguished sons, Levi, 1802, who, besides other offices, was by nine
elections the popular Governor of Massachusetts; and Enoch Lincoln, Gov-
ernor of Maine ; and many other able men.
"In a correspondence with the late President, in 1848, when he was in
Congress, he stated : ' My father's name is Thomas, my grandfather's was
Abraham, the same as my own. He went from Rockingham County, Virginia,
to Kentucky, about the year 1782, and two years afterwards was killed by the
Indians. We have a vague tradition that my great-grandfather was a Quaker
who went from Pennsylvania to Virginia. Further than this I have not
heard anything. It may do no harm to say that Abraham and Mordecai are
common names in our family. '
" In a subsequent letter in 1848, he wrote : 'I have mentioned that my
grandfather's name was Abraham; he had, as I think I have heard, four
brothers, Isaac, Jacob, Thomas, and John. He had three sons, Mordecai,
Josiah, and Thomas the last my father. My uncle Mordecai had three sons,
Abraham, James, and Mordecai. My uncle Josiah had several daughters and
only one son, Thomas. This is all I know certainly on the subject of names.
It is, however, my father's understanding that Abraham, Mordecai, and Thomas
are old family names of ours.' "
Mr. Solomon Lincoln continues : "We have already mentioned among
the sons of the first Samuel Daniel, Mordecai, and Thomas ; and among his
grandsons Mordecai, Isaac, and Abraham.
" It has been stated . . . that about the middle of the last century the
great-grandfather of Abraham Lincoln removed from Berks County, Pennsyl-
vania, to Augusta County, Virginia. These facts, from ' Rupp's History of
Berks County, ' are furnished by William B. Trask, Esq. , of the Genealogical
From the "History of the Town of Hingham, Massachusetts," four volumes,
8vo, 1893, by a committee comprising Ex-Governor Long and two mem-
bers of the Lincoln family. See Volume I., page 271.
"The Lincolns fill the pages of local and Commonwealth history with the
story of their services in the field, the town, the halls of legislation, and
the council chamber, from the earliest day to the present time. During the
French wars we have seen Benjamin Lincoln, as colonel of his regiment, the
historical Third Suffolk, . . . taking an active part. Colonel Lincoln
died in March, 1771, leaving, among others, the son Benjamin who so worthily
filled the place he long occupied in public estimation and usefulness. The
affection that is felt for the great President Abraham Lincoln, also a descendant
from the Hingham family, has given a national fame to the name in later years. "
From " The Lineage of Abraham Lincoln traced from Samuel Lincoln." By
Samuel Shackford, Esq., of Chicago, a descendant of Samuel Lincoln.
See New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 1887, Volume
XLL, page 153.
" Samuel Lincoln came from Norfolk County, England probably from
the town of Hingham in 1637, at the age of eighteen years, . . . first to
Salem, as an apprentice to a weaver ; then to Hingham, where his brother
Thomas . . . lived. . . . He had ten children. . . . Through his
first son, Samuel, came the Governors Levi Lincoln, father and son, and
Enoch Lincoln, Governor of Maine. Mordecai, fourth son of Samuel, born
at Hingham, June 17, 1767, was a blacksmith ; worked at his trade in Hull ;
married Sarah, daughter of Abraham and Sarah (Whitman) Jones. From
Hull the family removed to the neighboring town of Scituate, about 1704,
where Mordecai established a furnace for smelting iron ore. The children of
Mordecai and Sarah (Jones) Lincoln were five in number: Mordecai, born
April 1, 1686 ; Abraham, born January 13, 1689 ; Isaac, born October 21, 1691 ;
and Sarah, born July 29, 1691 all in Hingham. By a second wife he had
Elizabeth and Jacob, born in Scituate.
' ' The will of Mordecai, dated Scituate, March 3, 1727, is of an unusual
character. Isaac and Jacob, the younger sons Jacob a lad of sixteen years
were named executors ; and to them are bequeathed all the testator's lands in
Hingham and Scituate, with the saw and grist mill, and all his interest in the
iron works. To ' son Mordecai ' is left one hundred and ten pounds in money
or bills of credit ; to ' son Abraham,' sixty pounds in money or bills, ' besides
what he has already had.' To the oldest sons of Mordecai and Abraham, each
ten pounds when they come of age; and provision is made for sending^
three grandsons to college, if they wish a liberal education.
" Shortly before this time the names of Mordecai and Abraham disappear
from, and are not after 1727 found on, the records of Massachusetts. They were
active men of property ; and this fact, in connection with the will, which gave
them only money, and all the immovable property to Isaac and Jacob, raises
an almost irresistible inference that Mordecai and v Abraham no longer lived in.
LINCOLN'S ANCESTRY. 225
"We now turn to New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and find that, in the
early part of the last century, the Moores, Hales, Rolfs, Pikes, and other
families from eastern Massachusetts, came to Middlesex County, New Jersey,
and founded a town which they named, in honor of their old pastor in New-
bury, Massachusetts, Woodbridge. At a somewhat later date the names of
Mordecai and Abraham Lincoln appear on the records of Monmouth, which
adjoins Middlesex County.
"Mordecai Lincoln had married Hannah (Bowne) Salter of Freehold,
Monmouth County, New Jersey. Her uncle John Bowne's will, dated Septem-
ber 14, 1714, gives to Hannah Lincoln a bequest of two hundred and fifty
pounds. She was the daughter of Richard Salter, a leading lawyer, member
of the assembly, and judge. Captain John Bowne w r as also a leading and
influential citizen. The settlement of his estate involved several lawsuits
shown by the court records. The first in 1716, by Obadiah Bowne, executor,
against the other heirs, Mordecai Lincoln being a defendant. lu this a non-
suit was entered, and the second suit ended in the same way. The third, in
1719, also included Mordecai Lincoln as a defendant, but the sheriff returns
him non est, and in 1720 the suit as to Mordecai was withdrawn.
' ' These facts are satisfactory proof that Mordecai Lincoln had, before 1720,
left Monmouth County."
As further proof of the identity of the New Jersey with the Hingham
Mordecai, there is a letter shown to Mr. Shackford by John C. Beekman, Esq.,
of Monmouth, written by John Bowne, one of the heirs to his uncle Obadiah,
in which he calls Mordecai "brother."
A deed on file in the office of the Secretary of State in Trenton, New Jer-
sey, dated February 29, 1720, from Richard Salter to Mordecai Lincoln, both
of Freehold, conveys four hundred acres of land, situate on the Machaponix
River and Grand Bank, Middlesex County. A like deed, of May 25, 1726, con-
veys one hundred acres of land in the same locality, and describes Mordecai
Lincoln, the grantee, as of Chester County, Pennsylvania.
It appears from these records that Mordecai was in New Jersey in 1720.
In 1876 there was unearthed in the old burying-ground near Allentown, New
Jersey, a tombstone, bearing this inscription : "To the memory of Deborah
Lincoln, who died May 15, 1720, aged three years and four months." As no
other Lincolns have been found in the vicinity, it is probable that she was
the child of Mordecai and Hannah Lincoln.
A deed on file in the Department of Internal Affairs of Pennsylvania,
dated December 24, 1725, from Mordecai Lincoln of Coventry, County of
Chester, Pennsylvania, conveys to William Branston, merchant, of Philadel-
phia, one-third of one hundred and six acres of land, according to an agree-
ment between Samuel Nutt and Mordecai Lincoln, with "the mynes, and
minerals, forges, buildings, houses, and improvements." This is important,
for it shows that Mordecai first resided in Chester County, Pennsylvania,
where he made iron, a trade learned at his father's establishment in Scituate.
It is through Mordecai that the pedigree of President Lincoln is traced to
Samuel Lincoln. But it is also essential that Abraham of Monmouth County,
New Jersey, should be identified as one of the missing sons of Mordecai and
Sarah (Jones) Lincoln of eastern Massachusetts.
Abraham, like his father, was a blacksmith, as the next deed shows. By-
it, on the records of Monmouth County, New Jersey, February 20, 1727,
Abraham Lincoln, "blacksmith/' conveys to Thomas Williams two hundred
and forty acres of land near Creswick, in said county, and two hundred acres
conveyed to Abraham Lincoln by Abraham Van Horn. He was probably
preparing 1 to follow his brother Mordecai to Pennsylvania.
The will of Abraham Lincoln is dated in Springfield, Chester County,
Pennsylvania, April 15, 1745, and was entered for probate on the 29th of the
same month. His estate, a plantation in Springfield and two houses in Phila-
delphia, was divided among his children, viz. : Mordecai, Abraham, Isaac,
Jacob, John, Sarah, and Rebecca. Four of his sons bore the same Old Testa-
ment names as the four sons of the first Mordecai of Scituate.
Returning to Mordecai, we find in his will, proved June 7, 1736, that he is
described as of Amity, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. By it he be-
queaths to "my sons Mordecai and Thomas all my lands in Amity," etc. ; to
his daughters Hannah and Mary a piece of land in Machaponix, New Jersey ;
and to " my son John three hundred acres of land in the same town ;" and to
his daughters Ann and Sarah one hundred acres, also lying in Machaponix, '
His oldest son, John, was by his first wife, Hannah Salter, and went with
his father to Pennsylvania. A deed from John, on file in the Secretary of
State's office in Trenton, New Jersey, describes him as the "son and heir of
Mordecai Lincoln, of the town of Carnaervoii, County of Lancaster,'' and the
deed conveys to William T)ye ' ' three hundred acres in Middlesex County, New
Jersey, part of the property conveyed October 20, 1720, by Richard Salter to
Mordecai Lincoln, and by him bequeathed to his said son John. "
John Lincoln, in 1758, owned a farm in Union township, adjoining Exeter
(Pennsylvania ?), which he sold, and went to Virginia, settling in that portion
of Augusta County which was organized into Rockingham County in 1779.
His will cannot now be found, part of the papers in the probate office at Har-
risonburgh having been destroyed by fire. But there is ample proof that he
had sons John, Thomas, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and daughters.
The son Abraham married Mary Shepley in North Carolina, just over the
Virginia boundary line, where their sons Mordecai, Josiah, and Thomas were
born. In 1782, or about that time, the family removed to Kentucky, where
their daughters Mary and Nancy were born. The son THOMAS LINCOLN mar-
ried Nancy Hanks, September 23, 1806, near Springfield, Kentucky, and
ABRAHAM LINCOLN, their son, was born on the twelfth day of February,
Mr. Shackford continues : ' ' The Lincolns through which the President's
genealogy is traced were for six generations, with a single exception, pioneers
in the settlement -of new countries. I. Samuel, an early settler at Hingham,
Massachusetts. II. Mordecai, of Scituate, who lived and died near where he
was born. III. Mordecai, settled in Pennsylvania, thirty years before Berks
County was organized. IV. John, went to the wilds of Virginia. V. Abra-
ham, went to Kentucky with Boone when it was infested by savages. VI.
Thomas, with his son Abraham, pioneers to Indiana."
Mr. Shackford has traced the pedigrees of other members of the Lincoln
DR. GRAHAM'S ACCOUNT OF LINCOLN'S PARENTS. 227
family, in which the persistence of Scripture names is very marked. We con-
tent ourselves with the following, which bears directly on the connection of
the Pennsylvania and Virginia families :
"Abraham, the posthumous son of Mordecai and Mary Lincoln of Amity,
born in 1736, married Ann Boone, a cousin of Daniel, the Kentucky pioneer.
Their grandson, David J. Lincoln of Birdsboro', Pennsylvania, informs me
that his father James, who died in 1860, at the age of ninety -four, and his uncle
Thomas, who died in 1864, told him that Daniel Boone often visited his friends
in Pennsylvania, and always spent part of his time with his cousin Ann, and
that his glowing accounts of the South and West induced John Lincoln to
remove to Virginia. After his removal he was known as 'Virginia John,' to
distinguish him from others of the same name."
A fact which will probably impress the reader is that among the numerous
Lincolns mentioned in the six generations from Samuel, the immigrant in
1637, to Abraham, the President, two centuries later, there is not one that does
not bear a scriptural name. A coincidence not less remarkable is the identity
of names in the successive families.
Among the children of the first Mordecai, 1686, were Mordecai, Abraham,
Of the second Mordecai, 1727: Mordecai, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob.
Of Abraham, brother of second Mordecai, 1745: Mordecai, Abraham,
Isaac, Sarah identical with the children of the first Mordecai; also John,
Jacob, and Rebecca.
Of John of Virginia, or " Virginia John, " 1758: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob,
If there are any doubting Thomases who cannot see in this extraordi-
nary identity of names any blood relationship, no evidence would convince
them ; neither would they be persuaded though one rose from the dead.
Aside from this identity of names, the foregoing facts, taken from original
documents on file, and family papers, prove beyond any reasonable doubt that
Samuel Lincoln of Hingham was the ancestor of Abraham Lincoln of Illinois
by a line of descent through the first and second Mordecai, "Virginia John,"
Abraham, and Thomas Lincoln. In genealogical studies it is seldom, indeed,
that a pedigree is so clearly established.
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS GRAHAM AND HIS REMINISCENCES
OF LINCOLN'S PARENTS.
THE most important testimony we have in regard to the character of the
parents of Abraham Lincoln, and of the conditions under which they lived, is
that of Christopher Columbus Graham. Dr. Graham was born at Worthing-
ton's Station, near Danville, Kentucky, in 1784. He lived in the State until his
death at Louisville in 1885. This long period was to the very end one of use-
ful activity. A physician by profession, Dr. Graham was, by his love of nature,
botanist, geologist, naturalist; and his observations on the flora, fauna, and
strata of Kentucky are quoted on both sides of the Atlantic by scientists. For
many years Dr. Graham was the owner of the famous Harrodsburg Springs.
About 1852 he sold this property to the War Department of the United States
as a Retreat for Invalid Military Officers. After the sale of the Springs he
spent most of this time in study and in arranging his fine cabinet of Kentucky
geology and natural history, before selling it to the Louisville Library
It was only by an accident that Dr. Graham's knowledge of the history
of Thomas Lincoln was given to the public. Recluse and student, he heard
little or nothing of the stories about the worthlessness of Thomas Lincoln and
his wife which were circulated at the time of the election of Abraham Lincoln
to the Presidency. To what he did hear he paid little or no attention. One
day in the spring of 1882, however, he was visiting at the home of Capt. J. W.
Wartmann, Clerk of the United States Court at Evansville, Indiana, and Mr.
Wartmann overheard him say that he was present at the marriage of Thomas
Lincoln. Realizing at once the historical importance of such a testimony, and
thinking that it might lead to the discovery of documentary proofs of the
marriage, Mr. Wartmann secured from Mr. Graham the following affidavit :
"I, Christopher C. Graham, now of Louisville, Kentucky, aged ninety-
eight years, on my oath say : That I was present at the marriage of Thomas
Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, in Washington County, near the town of Spring-
field, Kentucky ; that one Jesse Head, a Methodist preacher of Springfield.
Kentucky, performed the ceremony. I knew the said Thomas Lincoln and
Nancy Hanks well, and know the said Nancy Hanks to have been virtuous
and respectable, and of good parentage. I do not remember the exact date of
the marriage, but was present at the marriage aforesaid ; and I make this
affidavit freely, and at the request of J. W. Wartmann, to whom, for the first
time, I have this day incidentally stated the fact of my presence at the said
wedding of President Lincoln's father and mother. I make this affidavit to
vindicate the character of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, and to put to
rest forever the legitimacy of Abraham Lincoln's birth. I was formerly pro-
prietor of Harrpdsburgh Springs ; I am a retired physician, and am now a
resident of Louisville, Kentucky. I think Felix Grundy was also present at
the marriage of said Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, the father and
mother of Abraham Lincoln. The said Jesse Head, the officiating minister at
the marriage aforesaid, afterward removed to Harrodsburgh, Kentucky, and
edited a paper there, and died at that place.
"CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS GRAHAM.
"Subscribed and sworn to before me, this March 20, A.D. 1882. N. C. But-
ler, Clerk United States Circuit Court, First District, Indiana. By J. W.
Wartmann, Deputy Clerk."
This affidavit attracted wide attention, and the "New York Christian
Advocate," the leading organ of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in its issue
of April 13, 1882, raised several pertinent questions :
1. Was Christopher Columbus Graham, at ninety-eight years of age, in
full possession of his faculties ?
2. Why had he not given his precious information before to the public ?
3. Was there a Methodist preacher named Jesse Head ?
These questions called out a large number of answers. The Rev. William
M. Grubbs, of the Southwest Indiana Conference, stationed at Castleton,
DR. GRAHAM'S ACCOUNT OF LINCOLN'S PARENTS. 229
Marion County, in answer to the editor's first point gave a brief history of Dr.
Graham, and explained why he ''should never have been heard of before as
the possessor of this precious information " :
" The Doctor himself was a man of more than ordinary intelligence, almost
a Chesterfield in manners, and a leader for years of the Whig party a great
friend of Henry Clay and unless he has greatly degenerated, he is now, at
ninety-eight years, a good specimen of 'the fine old Kentucky gentleman.'
Additional to the fact that he has been quite deaf for many years, he is a great
lover of nature in its varied forms. As an evidence of this, at the time I was
their guest, in 1855, he had been absent six months in the mountains of
Kentucky, pursuing his favorite studies in natural history, geology, etc.
Thus, though on good terms with his family, his habits became those of the
student and the recluse. The family told us pleasantly that such was his pas-
sion for nature in its wildest forms that they did not know when he would
think of paying them a visit. The last time I saw him was in Louisville, Ken-
tucky, arranging his large cabinet of natural history, geology, etc., for the
Library Association of that city, to which he had sold the same for quite a large
sum. Since the death of his wife and the marriage of his daughters, I think
he has had no settled home something of a rover with ample means and
friends everywhere. It is not, therefore, surprising that his habits of indiffer-
ence to passing events and themes kept him ignorant of the mooted point
that he sets to rest by his late statement. "
The Rev. John R. Eads, pastor of the Danville, Kentucky, Methodist
Episcopal Church, wrote of Dr. Graham : "I have never heard his veracity
or his integrity questioned." Of Jesse Head he said : "He is remembered by
some of the old people of this community. " He added :
"You seem surprised that the testimony of Dr. Graham to the 'precious
information ' which he communicates should not have been procured earlier.
I frankly confess that, while I am a native of central Kentucky, and have spent
most of my life here, I never heard before, so far as I can now remember, a
question raised as to the legal marriage of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks.
Thinking this might be exceptional in my case, I have taken the pains to-day
to ask others if they ever heard such a question raised, and they tell me they
have not. I feel quite sure that there must be very few people in central Ken-
tucky who ever heard of a doubt expressed concerning the legal marriage of
Letters were received from the Rev. R. T. Stephenson of Shelbyville, Ken-
tucky, and others, supplying information as to who the Rev. Jesse Head was
and what were his relations to the Methodist Episcopal Church. The facts,
however, are all given in condensed shape in the following :
" LAWRENCEBURG, KENTUCKY,
"ANDERSON COUNTY, May 3, 1882.
"To THE REV. J. M. BUCKLEY, D.D.
" .Dear Sir and Brother: Your favor reached me on the eve of my leaving
Harrodsburg for this place, hence the delay in responding to your request.
The Rev. Jesse Head referred to was my grandfather. He was born in Mary-
land, near Baltimore ; was married to Miss Jane Ramsey, of (what is now)
Bedford County, Pennsylvania. He removed to Kentucky, and settled at
Springfield, Washington County. He was an ordained minister of the Metho-
dist Episcopal Church, but was never connected with the itinerancy in Ken-
tucky, oil account of feeble health. He held several prominent civil offices
while living in Springfield, and was actively engaged preaching the gospel of
God's grace. He celebrated the rites of matrimony between Thomas Lincoln
and Miss Nancy Hanks, father and mother of President Lincoln, in 1806, near
Springfield. He afterwards moved to Harrodsburg, Mercer County, where he
lived until his death, which occurred in March, 1842. At Harrodsburg he
engaged in merchandising, also owned and edited the county paper for a term
of years. He was largely instrumental, if not wholly, in*building the iirst
church ever erected in Harrodsburg ; also organized and conducted the first
prayer-meeting. In gospel labors he w r as always abundant. His house was
the home for several years of Rev. H. B. Bascom, afterwards Bishop ; also of
Bishop McKendree especially, as they were bosom friends. Some time before
his death he left the Methodist Episcopal Church, and connected himself with
the Radical Methodists, on account of slavery, and also some dissatisfaction
with the Episcopacy. He then had charge of and preached for a church for
years at Lexington, Kentucky. His name at Harrodsburg and through the
surrounding country is as ointment poured forth. He was a man of decided and
positive character, bold and aggressive, and died loved and honored by all.
He died as he lived, in the triumph of the faith of the Gospel of God's Son.
" Fraternally yours,
"E. B. HEAD, P.E.,
" Lawrenceburg Circuit, Kentucky Conference."
The "Christian Advocate," upon receipt of the first letter, requested the
Rev. John R. Eads of Danville, Kentucky, to have the marriage record ex-
amined, the following reply being returned :
"DANVILLE, KENTUCKY, April 25, 1882.
" My Dear Brother: Your postal card received. I have just received the
accompanying paper, which, though somewhat singular in form in some of
its parts, will be plain to you in its essential facts. You have received my
other two letters, which in connection with this certificate will, I trust, set the
whole matter to which they relate in a satisfactory light.
"JOHN R. EADS."
Here follows the certificate :
" Clerk's Office, Washington County Court,
"W. F. Booker, Clerk.
"SPRINGFIELD, KENTUCKY, April 24, 1882.
"THE REV. JOHN R. EADS.
"Dear Sir: Yours in regard to the marriage certificate of Thomas Lincoln
to Nancy Hanks reached here during my absence in Louisville. I now send
you a copy of the same :
" I do hereby certify that the following is a true list of the marriage solem-
nized by me between Tnomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, September 23, 1806.
"JESSE HEAD, D. N. E. C.
" (Copy attest.)
"W. F. Booker,
" Clerk, Washington County Court.
" Yours respectfully, W. F. B."
The "Christian Advocate," in publishing the letters, said:
" In summing up the whole the following points may be considered as for-
ever settled :
"1. There was such a man as Jesse Head, a local deacon in the Methodist
Episcopal Church, in 1806.
"2. He married Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks on September 23, 1806, *
* The date here given is wrong ; the marriage took place on June 12, 1806. The error arose in copying
the record the first time, the date of the marriage following that of Thomas Lincoln being taken instead of
the one before his name.
DR. GRAHAM'S ACCOUNT OF LINCOLN'S PARENTS. 231
of whom was born the venerated and never-to-be-forgotten Abraham Lin-
" 3. The fact of the marriage was duly certified by Jesse Head, in the
clerk's office of Washington County, Kentucky, where it may now be seen.
"4. The Rev. E. B. Head has spoken of this fact in the family history
prior to the publication of this affidavit.
" 5. Dr. Graham is a competent witness, and his testimony is confirmed in
"6. In view of these facts, that there should ever have been any doubts
raised about the marriage of the parents of Mr. Lincoln, and that it should
have been gravely discussed, and never explicitly settled in the various biogra-
phies, is remarkable."
Soon after the publication of the above facts a historian of Louisville,
Kentucky, Dr. Henry Whitney Cleveland, realizing the importance of Dr.
Graham's reminiscences, secured from him, in his hundredth year, an account
of what he remembered of Thomas Lincoln. Mr. Cleveland took down word
for word what Dr. Graham told him, and we print it in full below. We
regard it as in many ways the most important unpublished document we
have been able to discover in regard to Thomas Lincoln. As to the mental
condition of Dr. Graham in 1884, we have the testimony of some of the
leading citizens of Louisville. In the paper read before the Southern Historical
Society in 1880, in commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary of
Louisville, Dr. Durrett said of Mr. Graham :
' ' Four years more will make him a centenarian, and yet he moves along
the streets every day with the elastic step of manhood's prime, and the eagle
eye which made him in youth the finest rifle-shot hi the world is shorn but
little of its unerring sight. He was a practising physician three-quarters of a
century ago, arid is the author of several learned books of a professional and
philosophical character. His health is yet good, his faculties well preserved,
and he seems to-day more like a man of sixty-nine than ninety-six."
In 1884, when Dr. Graham had become a centenarian, a banquet was given
him at which all the leading citizens of Louisville were present. Without
exception, every one of the persons with whom we have talked of Dr. Graham's
condition at this time affirms that he was mentally vigorous and his memory
trustworthy. In the face of such testimony the statements in the following
document must be accepted :
DR. GRAHAM'S STATEMENT.
The original statement was written out, at Dr. Graham's dictation, by Dr. Henry
Whitney Cleveland of Louisville, Kentucky, but was signed by Dr. Graham's own hand.
I, CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS GRAHAM, now in my hundredth year, and
visiting the Southern Exposition in Louisville, where I live, tell this to please
my young friend Henry Cleveland, who is nearly half my age. He was often
at the Springs Hotel in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, then owned and kept by me
for invalids and pleasure-seekers. I am one of the two living men who can
prove that Abraham Lincoln, or Linkhorn, as the family was miscalled, was
born in lawful wedlock, for I saw Thomas Lincoln marry Nancy Hanks on
the twelfth day of June, 1806. He was born at what was then known as the
Rock Spring Farm it is now called the Creal Place three miles south of
Hodgensville, in Larue County, Kentucky.
Kentucky was first a county of Virginia after its settlement, and then was
divided into three counties ; and these, again divided, are pretty much the pres-
ent State. The first historian was Filson, who made and published the first
map of the separate territory, with the names of streams and stations as given
by Daniel Boone and Squire Boone, James Harrod, and others. I knew all of
these, as well as President Lincoln's parents.
I think they lived on the farm four years after he was born. Another boy
was born in Hodgensville, or, I should say, buried there. The sister, Sally,
was older than Abe, I think. I think the paper now owned by Henry Cleve-
land is the ' ' marriage lines " written by Rev. Jesse Head, a well-known Meth-
odist preacher. I do not think the old Bible it was found in was that of
Tom Lincoln. It would cost too much for him. All of the records in it were
those of the father's family the John M. Hewetts of the wife of Dr. Theodore
S. Bell. Dr. Bell was only about twenty years younger than I am, and prob-
ably got the certificate in 1858 or 1860, when assertions were made that Tom
Lincoln and Nancy Hanks were not married when Abe was born.
He was reputed to have been born February 12, 1809, and I see no good
reason to dispute it. Sally, I am sure, was the first child, and Nancy was a
fresh and good-looking girl I should say past twenty. Nancy lived with the
Sparrow family a good bit. It was likely Tom had the family Bible from Vir-
ginia, through his father, called Abraham Linkhorn. His brothers, however,
were older if they were brothers, and not uncles, as some say. I was hunt-
ing roots for my medicines, and just went to the wedding to get a good supper,
and got it.
Bibles cost as much as the spinning-wheel, or loom, or rifle, and were im-
ported in the main. A favorite with the Methodists was Fletcher's, or one he
wrote a preface for. Preachers used it, and had no commentaries. A book
dedicated to King James or any other king did not take well in Revolution-
ary times. The Bibles I used to see had no printed records or blanks, but a
lot of fine linen hand-made paper would be bound in front or back. On this,
family history and land matters were written out fully like a book. Some
had fifty pages. The court-houses even were made of logs, and the meeting-
houses too, if they had any. No registers were kept as in English parish
churches, and are not yet. Before a license could be had, a bond and security
was taken of the bridegroom, and the preacher had to return to the court all
marriages of the year. This was often a long list, and at times papers were
lost or forgotten, but not often. The " marriage lines " given by the preacher
to the parties were very important in case the records were burned up by acci-
dent. Such is the paper that Henry Cleveland has shown to me. The ring
was not often used, as so few had one to use. The Methodist Church discipline
forbid "the putting on of gold or costly apparel," and I think a preacher with
a gold watch if not an inherited one would have been dismissed. A
preacher that married was "located," and that ended his itinerancy in the
Methodist Church. The Presbyterians were educated and married ; Baptists
DR. GRAHAM'S ACCOUNT OF LINCOLN'S PARENTS. 233
Tom Lincoln was a carpenter, and a good one for those days, when a cabin
was built mainly with the axe, and not a nail or bolt or hinge in it, only
leathers and pins to the door, and no glass, except in watches and spectacles
and bottles. Tom had the best set of tools in what was then and now Wash-
ington County. Larue County, where the farm was settled, was then Hardin.
Jesse Head, the good Methodist preacher that married them, was also a
carpenter or cabinet-maker by trade, and as he was then a neighbor, they were
good friends. He had a quarrel with the bishops, and was not an itinerant
for several years, but an editor, and county judge afterwards, in Harrodsburg.
Mr. Henry Cleveland has his commission from Governor Isaac Shelby.
Many great men of the South and North were then opposed to slavery,
mainly because the new negroes were as wild as the Indians, and might prove
as dangerous. Few of the whites could read, and yet Pope and Drydeii and
Shakespeare were as well known as Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" and
Baxter's "Saints' Rest." Some were educated in Virginia and North Carolina
before they came, and these, when they became teachers, wrote out their
school-books entirely by hand.
Thomas Lincoln, like- his son after him, had a notion that fortunes could
be made by trips to New Orleans by flatboat. This was dangerous, from snags
and whirlpools in the rivers, from Indians, and even worse pirates of the
French, Canadians, arid half-breeds. Steam was unknown, and the flats had
to be sold in New Orleans, as they could not be rowed back against the cur-
rents. The neighbors joked Tom for building his boat too high and narrow,
from an idea he had about speed, that has since been adopted by ocean steam-
ships. But he lacked in ballast. He loaded her up with deer and bear hams
and buffalo, which last was then not so plenty for meat or hides as when the
Boone brothers came in. Besides, he had wax, for bees seemed to follow the
white people, and he had wolf and coon and mink and beaver skins, gentian root
(that folks then called "gensang" or " 'sang"), nuts, honey, peach-brandy and
whiskey, and jeans woven by his wife and Sally Bush, that he married after
Nancy died. Some said she died of heart trouble, from slanders about her and
old Abe Enloe, called Inlow, while her Abe, named for the pioneer Abraham
Linkhorn, was still little. But I am ahead of my story, for Nancy had just got
married where I was telling it, and the flatboat and Sally Bush Lincoln come
in before he goes over to what people called " Indiany." I will finish that, and
then go back.
He started down Knob Creek when it was flush with rains ; but the leaves
held water like a sponge, and the ground was shaded with big trees and papaw
and sassafras thickets and "cain," as Bible-read folks spelt the cane, and
streams didn't dry up in summer like they do now. When he got to the Ohio
it was flush, too, and full of whirlpools and snags. He had his tool-chest along,
intending to stop and work in Indiana and take down another boat. But he
never got to the Mississippi with that, for it upset, and he only saved his chest
and part of his load because he was near to the Indiana shore. He stored what
he saved under bark, and came home a-foot, and in debt to neighbors who had
helped him. But people never pressed a man that lost by Indians or water.
Now I go back for a spell. Thomas and Nancy both could read and write,
and little Abe went to school about a year. He was eight years old at the tune
of the accident to Torn Lincoln's down-the-river venture. Thomas and Nancy
were good common people, not above nor below their neighbors, and I did not
take much notice of them, because there was no likelihood that their wedding
would mean more than other people's did.
The preacher Jesse Head often talked to me on religion and politics, for
I always liked the Methodists. I have thought it might have been as much
from his free-spoken opinions as from Henry Clay's American- African coloni-
zation scheme in 1817, that I lost a likely negro man, who was leader of my
musicians. It is said that Tom Corwin met him in Ohio on his way to Can-
ada, and asked if I was along. The boy said no, he was going for his freedom.
Governor Corwin said he was a fool ; he had never been whipped or abused,
but dressed like a white man, with the best to eat, and that hundreds of white
people would be glad of such a good place, with no care, but cared for.
The boy drew himself up and said : "Marse Tom, that situation with all
its advantages is open to you, if you want ter go an' fill it."
But Judge Head never encouraged any runaway, nor had any ' ' under-
ground railroad. " He only talked freely and boldly, and had plenty of true
Southern men with him, such as Clay. The Eli Whitney cotton-gin had now
made slavery so valuable that preachers looked in Hebrew and Greek Testa-
ments for scripture for it.
Tom Lincoln and Nancy, and Sally Bush were just steeped full of Jesse
Head's notions about the wrong of slavery and the rights of man as explained
by Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine. Abe Lincoln the Liberator was
made in his mother's womb and father's brain and in the prayers of Sally Bush ;
by the talks and sermons of Jesse Head, the Methodist circuit rider, assistant
county judge, printer-editor, and cabinet-maker. Little Abe grew up to serve
as a cabinet-maker himself two Presidential terms.
It was in my trip to Canada after my negro that I met the younger brother
of the great chief Tecumseh. A mob wanted to kill me because I was after
my property that had legs and a level head. The Indian was one of the finest
looking men I ever saw, and in the full uniform of a British officer. He pro-
tected me, and we had a talk after the danger was over. He said that history
was right about the death of his great brother Tecumseh at the battle of the
Thames in 1813. But the story of his skin being taken off by soldiers to make
razor-straps was all a lie, as they never had the chance. He was not even
slain at the point in the battle indicated by Colonel Richard M. Johnson, whose
accession to the Vice-Presidency in 1836 was largely due to the credit which he
gained for this supposed exploit. My Indian protector said he was a lad at the
time, but [was] there ; and that the red men never abandoned their chiefs, dead
I come back again to the Lincoln-Hanks wedding of 1806. Rev. or
Judge Jesse Head was one of the most prominent men there, as he was able to
own slaves, but did not on principle. Next, I reckon, came Mordecai Lincoln,
at one time member of the Kentucky legislature. He was a good Indian
fighter ; and although some say he was the elder brother of Tom Lincoln, I
understood he was his uncle, or father's brother. The story of his killing the
Indian who killed old Abraham Linkhorn is all "my eye and Betty Martin."
My acceptance of this whole pedigree is on hearsay, and none of it from
DR. GRAHAM'S ACCOUNT OF LINCOLN'S PARENTS. 235
the locality of Tom Lincoln's home. There is a Virginia land warrant, No.
3,334, of March 4, 1780, for four hundred acres of land, cost one hundred and
sixty pounds, located in Jefferson County, Kentucky, on Long Run ; and
[there is a report of survey for the same tract (see pages 22 and 23)] signed by
William Shanon, D. S. J. C., and William May, S. J. C., witnessed by Ana-
niah Lincoln and Josiah Lincoln, C. C. (chain-carriers), and Abraham Link-
horn, Marker, dated May 7, 1785, five years later. "Mordecai Lincoln,
Gentleman," is the title given one who died in Berks County, Pennsylvania,
in 1735, and his will is recorded in the Register's office in Philadelphia. New
Jersey, Virginia, and Tennessee also have the name correctly, in the last
century. The fame of General Benjamin Lincoln of the Revolution was on
every tongue at that tune. In the field-book of Daniel Boone, owned by
Lyman C. Draper, five hundred acres of land was entered for Abraham
Lincoln on treasury warrant No. 5,994, December 11, 1782. The officers of the
land-office of Virginia could spell, and so could the surveyor and deputy sur-
veyor (Record " B," p. 60 of Jefferson County in 1785). The two chain-car-
riers spelled the name correctly. Why not also think that the third man
spelled his correctly ? A very illiterate man could pronounce what he could
not spell, and Abraham Linkhorn, who had money and could write, knew his
own name. President Lincoln told James Speed : "I don't know who my
grandfather was, and am more concerned to know what his grandson will be."
I am not sure that we know, either, perfectly yet.*
While you pin me down to facts I will say that I saw Nancy Hanks
Lincoln at her wedding, a fresh-looking girl, I should say over twenty.
Tom was a respectable mechanic and could choose, and she was treated with
respect. . . .
I was at the iiifare, too, given by John H. Parrott, her guardian, and only
girls with money had guardians appointed by the court. We had bear-meat
(that you can eat the grease of, and it not rise like other fats) ; venison ; wild
turkey and ducks ; eggs, wild and tame (so common that you could buy them
at two bits a bushel) ; maple sugar, swung on a string, to bite off for coffee or
whiskey ; syrup in big gourds ; peach-and-honey ; a sheep that the two families
barbecued whole over coals of wood burned in a pit, and covered with green
boughs to keep the juices in ; and a race for the whiskey bottle. The sheep
cost the most, and corn was early raised in what is now Boyle County, at the
Isaac Shelby place. I don't know who stamped in the first peach-seed, but
they grew before the apples. Our table was of the puncheons cut from solid
logs, and on the next day they were the floor of the new cabin.
It is all stuff about Tom Lincoln keeping his wife in an open shed in a
winter when the wild animals left the woods and stood in the corners next the
stick-and-clay chimneys, so as not to freeze to death ; or, if climbers, got on
the roof. The Lincolns had a cow and calf, milk and butter, a good feather
bed, for I have slept in it (while they took the buffalo robes on the floor, be-
cause I was a doctor) . They had home- woven ' ' kiverlids, " big and little pots, a
loom and wheel ; and William Hardesty, who was there too, can say with me
that Torn Lincoln was a man and took care of his wife.
* The memoranda for Lincoln's genealogy (page 223), and the Introduction to this work, as well as the
first chapter, show that we do know now, beyond a doubt, who and what Lincoln's ancestors were.
I have been in bark camps with Daniel and Squire Boone and James Har-
rod. We have had to wade in the " crick," as Daniel spelt it, to get our scent
lost in the water, and the Indian dogs off our trail. When trailed and there
was no water handy, I have seen Daniel cut a big grapevine loose at the bot-
tom, with his tomahawk, from the ground. Then, with a run and swing from
the tree it hung to, swing and jump forty feet clear, to break the scent on the
ground. I have done it too, but not so far. He could beat any man on the
run and jump, but it took more than two Indians or one bear to make him do
it. If no dog barked in the silent woods, we could run backward very fast,
and make Mr. Indian think we had gone the way we came. They went that
way, and we the other for dear scalps and hair. Squirrels barking or chatter-
ing at Indians, or dogs, often told us of our danger. I wanted to have a pioneer
exhibit at the great Louisville Southern Expositions of 1883 and 1884. I wanted
the dense laurel and the papaw thickets planted in rich soil ; the bear climbing
the bee-tree, and beaten by the swinging log hung by the hunter in his way ;
the creeping Indian with his tomahawk, and the hunter with the old flint-and-
steel rifle, just as I had seen them. Then I wanted to have women from the
mountains and the counties that railroads and turnpikes have not opened, and
have them in real life, to spin and weave, or bead and fringe the moccasin
and hunting-shirt and leggings as they did when I was a boy. This, by the
side of the industries and arts of the new era, and the wool and cotton ma-
chinery in its present perfection, would indeed tell to the eyes of the changes
seen by an old man who has lived a hundred years. As they did not listen
to me, I have asked Henry Cleveland, who was a boy and played with my lit-
tle children at the Harrodsburg Springs in the forties, to write it as I talked to
him. I am very deaf, but can see and talk, and will now write my autograph
to what he has written and copied off, and will take up James Harrod at
A LEAF FROM LINCOLN'S EXERCISE-BOOK, USED IN 1824.
HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED. (See page 78.)
From the Collection of Mr. William H. Lambert of Philadelphia,
MR. LAMBERT'S collection of Lincolniana has been made most intelligently.
Primarily it consists of the literature directly relating to Lincoln, and includes
a large number of books and pamphlets, the list of biographies and eulogies
being very full. It also comprises a large number of engravings of Lincoln,
and a number of autograph letters and documents, chief among which are a
THE OLDROYD LINCOLN COLLECTION. 237
leaf from Lincoln's sum-book, 1824; the precipe in his first lawsuit; letter to
William H. Herndon, relative to General Taylor and the Mexican War ; letter
to his step-brother, John D. Johnston, refusing assent to the latter's proposition
to dispose of the mother's interest in property ; printed copy of the Emancipa-
tion Proclamation, signed by Lincoln, attested by Mr. Seward, and certified by
Mr. Nicolay, being one of the twenty copies made for the great Sanitary Fair
in Philadelphia, 1864 ; and a series of autograph letters of William H. Herndon,
written in 1866 and 1867, relative to his lectures on Lincoln and the biography
which he proposed writing. Among the books are a copy of Paley's works,
from Lincoln's private library; " Angel on Limitations," from his law library;
and " Webster's Dictionary," used by Lincoln at the White House.
The office table, bookcase, revolving chair, and wooden inkstand owned
and used by Lincoln in his law office at Springfield, with certificates from Mr.
Herndon and others as to the genuineness of these articles, are in the collec-
tion. From the inkstand, Mr. Herndon states, the " house-divided-against-
itself " speech was written.
The Volk life-mask and casts of hands, the Clark-Mills life-mask, and an
original ambrotype of Lincoln, made in August, 1860, are also owned by Mr.
THE OLDROYD LINCOLN COLLECTION.
THE oldest and probably the largest collection of Lincolniana which has
been made is known as the Oldroyd collection, and is at present in the house
in Washington, D. C., where Lincoln died. April 15, 1865. The collection takes
its name from its owner, Colonel O. H. Oldroyd. The germ of the collection
was a campaign badge which excited the possessor's desire to have others. In
the days of 1860 in Ohio Mr. Oldroyd lived in Ohio it was easy to get badges
adorned with Mr. Lincoln's face, or with a section of the rail fence and the flat-
boat which had been adopted by the people as his armorial bearings. The
campaign badges which young Oldroyd saved naturally drew other things to
them; pictures off tomato cans, tobacco pouches, soap and chewing-gum
wrappers, and what not ; cuts from the newspapers, campaign pictures.
If Mr. Oldroyd had not been born with the collecting spirit all this would
probably have amounted to nothing. It would have been relegated to the gar-
ret and one day have been burned. But he had that itching for possession, and
the more he had the more he wanted. He spent all he could earn in buying
new treasures, and he began a general exchange with other collectors, until by
the close of the war he probably had the finest lot of Lincolniana in the United
It was the possession of this collection which induced Mr. Oldroyd to go to
Springfield, 111. Here he hoped to add easily to what he had already gathered,
much concerning Lincoln's early life, and to find a permanent home for his
whole collection. Few people appreciated the value of Lincoln souvenirs in
those days, and many curious pieces came into Mr. Oldroyd's hands for the
asking. As the collection became larger and the public began to show interest
in it, Mr. Oldroyd determined to put it in a place where he could exhibit it
freely. The old Lincoln homestead, bought by Mr. Lincoln in 1846, the house
where he was living when elected to the Presidency, was standing. It had
been sadly neglected for many years, and now was vacant. Mr. Oldroyd
rented it, and put his collection into the double parlors of the house. The place
became soon one of the "monuments" of Springfield, and visitors went out of
their way to see it. It became the headquarters for old soldiers and the start-
ing point for all kinds of patriotic gatherings. Mr. Robert Lincoln, seeing the
interest which the public took in his father's old home, and appreciating the
efforts of Mr. Oldroyd to make a complete collection, turned over the Lincoln
homestead in 1887 to the State as a perpetual memorial to Abraham Lincoln.
The legislature of Illinois formally accepted the gift, and installed Mr. Oldroyd
as guardian of the house, it being understood that his collection was to remain
The undertaking proved a success, and matters went well until in 1893 the
administration changed. For some reason which only those initiated into
the mysteries of party government can understand, it was deemed unwise by
the party rulers to allow Mr. Oldroyd, who happened to be of the opposing 1
faith, to remain in charge of the Lincoln Home ; so he was relieved of his func-
tions as guardian, and a new incumbent selected. One result of the change,
which the new administration had probably not counted on, was that, as
the collection in the house belonged to Mr. Oldroyd, and not to the State,
when he went out that went out too. The intelligent people of Springfield of
both parties regretted exceedingly this ludicrous application of party principles
to so non-partisan a subject as a collection of Lincoln relics ; but nothing was
done to save the museum, and Mr. Oldroyd was obliged to leave the town,
where he had struggled with pathetic patience for so many years to get a per-
manent home for his Lincolniana.
After some casting about he finally determined to remove to Washing-
ton, and he was encouraged to this step by several men of the city and
government prominent among whom were Chief Justice Fuller, Dr. Hamlin,
a leading clergyman, General Schofield, and the Hon. G. G. Hubbard. These
gentlemen had founded a Lincoln Memorial Association; and, renting the
house 011 Tenth Street where Lincoln had died on April 15, 1865, they installed
Mr. Oldroyd in it. Their plan was to petition Congress to buy the house and
collection, and to appropriate enough for the guardian's salary. Considerable
interest was awakened in the enterprise, and the association, on the strength
of this, felt justified in, keeping the house open for several months. The appro-
priation did not come, however, and the gentlemen decided that the expenses
could not be kept up indefinitely, and that it would be necessary to close up
the exhibit until the heart of Congress could be converted.
The situation was a difficult one for Mr. Oldroyd. He had made the
change from Springfield to Washington at large expense to himself, and now
he could ill afford to carry on the enterprise alone. But with a pluck and a
devotion to his cause which has characterized all his movements he decided to
take the burden on himself, rent the house, keep open the museum, and trust
to the public to support it. To aid in the undertaking, he compiled and pub-
THE OLDROYD LINCOLN COLLECTION. 239
lished a small volume " The Words of Lincoln." The profits from the sale
of this book, together with the small fee charged to enter the museum, are all
that now support the undertaking.
The collection whose history has been here sketched is full of curious and
interesting articles. Among the personal effects of Mr. Lincoln which Mr.
Oldroyd has collected, the most valuable is undoubtedly the tall silk hat which
was worn by Lincoln on the night of his assassination. There are several
specimens of the plain and homely garments used by Mr. Lincoln in his early
days in Illinois. Of household furniture there are many examples. The most
touching is, undoubtedly, the simple, old-fashioned cradle in which Mrs. Lin-
coln, and, if -tradition is correct, Mr. Lincoln also, rocked " Tad " and Willie.
A wooden settee which stood for years on the veranda of the Springfield house,
is exhibited, as well as the cooking-stove which stood in the Lincoln kitchen
at the time when the family moved to Washington. Mr. Oldroyd says that he
has been offered extravagant sums by stove dealers for this stove, they wanting
it presumably to use as an advertisement. Another valuable piece of furniture
is the wooden office chair which Mr. Lincoln used when he first began to
practise law in 1837. A chair of still greater interest is an old-fashioned hair-
cloth rocker in which he sat in Ford's Theatre on the night on which he
received his death- wound.
Several autograph letters from Mr. Lincoln are owned by Mr. Oldroyd.
By far the most interesting specimen of his writing is the short autobiography
which he prepared for his friend Jesse Fell before the campaign of 1860.
This autobiography was the foundation of all the histories which were issued
in such great numbers just before and after his first election.
In Lincoln portraiture the collection is very full, though it is rather from
a historical point of view than from an artistic that it is valuable. Mr. Oldroyd
has copies of nearly all of the engravings and lithographs issued in Mr. Lin-
coln's lifetime. He has also a splendid lot of wood-cuts gathered from news-
papers, magazines, and pamphlets. In this collection of prints there are
numbers of views of the Lincoln family and of various scenes connected with
Mr. Lincoln's public career. From the spring of 1860 until after the funeral, in
1865, there were few issues of the illustrated papers in this country which did
not contain something 011 the President. Mr. Oldroyd has succeeded in getting
nearly all of these prints, among them a great many caricatures. He has a
full set of " Vanity Fair," and many of the Currier and Ives lithographs, now
so rare. An interesting feature of the collection is the number of curios it
contains campaign documents of various kinds, such as badges, medals, pins,
letter paper and envelopes, flags, etc.
The use that was made by advertisers of Lincoln's face during his Presi-
dency is shown by a case of common articles ; there are tomato cans, spap,
washing fluid, tobacco pouches, cigarette cases, spruce gum, and many other
trivial articles, all enclosed in highly-colored papers bearing portraits of Mr.
Lincoln, surrounded by a rail fence or some popular campaign legend.
The only complete collection of the portraits of Lincoln issued by the
government which we have ever seen, Mr. Oldroyd owns. Among them is a
revenue stamp calling for five pounds of tobacco ; another is good for seventy
gallons of distilled spirits, a third for four ounces of snuff, and a fourth
calls for cigarettes. Lincoln's head appears on a variety of postage stamps ;
the four, six, fifteen, and ninety-cent stamps all bear his face. The six-cent
stamp of each of the Departments has a head of Lincoln. The old fifty-cent
" shin plaster " is exhibited. It was the only one of our scrip issue which bore
a head of Lincoln. His picture is also to be found on a ten-dollar greenback,
a one-hundred-dollar United States note, and a one-hundred-dollar government
The most valuable portion of the Oldroyd collection is undoubtedly its
books, pamphlets, and clippings. The library contains almost all of the
biographies which have been issued, a large number of memoirs by con-
temporaries of Lincoln, and many war records. There are copies of some
three hundred different sermons delivered at the time of Lincoln's death,
as well as a great number of the pieces of music composed in his honor.
A precious book in Mr. Oldroyd's Lincoln library is the Bible owned by
Thomas Lincoln, the father of the President. This Bible bears the date of
1798 ; it undoubtedly went with the Lincolns from Kentucky to Indiana, and
was carried from there by them when they moved into Illinois. It was kept
in the family of Thomas Lincoln's step-children until 1892, when it was sold
to be exhibited at the World's Fair. It afterward passed to Mr. Oldroyd.
At present it is not known what will be done with the Oldroyd collection.
The owner has made heroic efforts to keep it together, and it is to be hoped
that some way will open by which he can realize his ambition.
A series of articles on the middle and later periods of Lincoln's life will be found
in the McCLURE's MAGAZINE, beginning with the number for March, 1896, These
articles are prepared by the authors of the present volume, assisted by many persons
who were in close personal association ivith Lincoln, and possess important facts and
reminiscences never before published. The articles are very fully illustrated with
numerous portraits of Lincoln, his friends and associates, and with pictures, specially
drawn or photographed for the Magazine, of all important places and scenes with
which he was connected.